Urbanization and urban heat island have significant impacts that vary from local to global levels; therefore, cities are under greater threat to global environmental change. This study, for the first time, focuses on comparative assessment of an iconic phenomenon of “surface urban heat island” (SUHI) in the coastal areas of Pakistan. For the purpose of this study, remote sensing techniques are used. Data for the period of January 2017 to December 2017, day and night scenes of TERRA/MODIS are obtained to create land surface temperature (LST) maps. Surface temperatures are examined against land cover data across various cities while comparing them with LSTs and land cover data in GIS Software. Spatial patterns of SUHI in each city are also investigated through its diurnal variation and seasonal changes. Association between SUHI and wind stream is presented in monthly analysis, which indicates that high wind speed is generally linked with the lowest development of SUHI. This research provides a broad perspective over the SUHI phenomenon in the coastal areas of Pakistan, and the results will be useful for urban planners to make decisions that can enhance environmental sustainability practices.
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The authors would like to thank USGS Earth Resource Observation Systems Data Center for providing free Landsat imagery that can be obtained from (https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/). The MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1 km SIN Grid is acquired from the Level-1 and Atmosphere Archive & Distribution System (LAADS) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), located in the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland (https://ladsweb.nascom.nasa.gov/). We are also grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions on this manuscript.
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Rizvi, S.H., Fatima, H., Alam, K. et al. The Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity and Urban Expansion: A comparative analysis for the coastal areas of Pakistan. Environ Dev Sustain (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-00828-5
- Surface urban heat island
- Land cover land use
- Land surface temperature