Well-organized ethnic diversity plays a crucial role in performing quality environment and international trade. Discrimination, segregation and bigotry are escalating the pressure on world’s population and spreading prejudice, later as a consequence may lead to social exclusion. This study aims to investigate whether ethnic or religious diversity affects international trade and the environmental performance by using the data of 187-countries (including 56 high-income, 102 middle-income and 29 low-income countries) of the world. The results indicate that diversity (ethnic and religious) plays a significant positive impact on international trade and environmental performance of high- and middle-income countries and vice versa with low-income countries. This study further suggested that diversity cannot be abbreviated; however, its disastrous effects may be curtailed by providing equal opportunities and peace in society to ensure the well-being of people through cohesiveness.
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List of high-income countries:
|Antigua and Barbuda||Israel||San Marino|
|Canada||Malta||Hong Kong, China|
|Czech Republic||New Caledonia||Switzerland|
|Denmark||New Zealand||Trinidad and Tobago|
|Estonia||Norway||United Arab Emirates|
List of middle-income countries:
|Algeria||Cape Verde||Gabon||Kyrgyz Republic||Namibia|
|Bangladesh||Cote d’Ivoire||Guyana||Macedonia, FYR||Papua New Guinea|
|Bolivia||Dominica||Iran, Islamic Rep.||Mauritania||Romania|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Dominican Republic||Iraq||Mauritius||Russian Federation|
|Brazil||Egypt, Arab Rep.||Jordan||Micronesia, Fed. Sts.||Sao Tome and Principe|
|Bulgaria||El Salvador||Kazakhstan||Moldova||Serbia and Montenegro|
|Cambodia||Equatorial Guinea||Kenya||Mongolia||Solomon Islands|
|Suriname||Taiwan, China||Timor-Leste||Turkey||South Africa|
|Syrian Arab Republic||Thailand||Tunisia||Ukraine||St. Lucia|
|Venezuela, RB||Yemen, Rep.||Vanuatu||Uzbekistan||Sudan|
List of low-income countries:
|Burkina Faso||Malawi||Somalia||Gambia, The|
|Central African Republic||Mozambique||Togo||Guinea-Bissau|
|Congo, Dem. Rep.|
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Ahmad, N., Amin, S. Does ethnic polarization stimulate or relegate trade and environmental performance? A global perspective. Environ Dev Sustain 22, 6513–6536 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00497-z
- Ethnic diversity
- Religious diversity
- International trade
- Environmental performance