Does ethnic polarization stimulate or relegate trade and environmental performance? A global perspective

Abstract

Well-organized ethnic diversity plays a crucial role in performing quality environment and international trade. Discrimination, segregation and bigotry are escalating the pressure on world’s population and spreading prejudice, later as a consequence may lead to social exclusion. This study aims to investigate whether ethnic or religious diversity affects international trade and the environmental performance by using the data of 187-countries (including 56 high-income, 102 middle-income and 29 low-income countries) of the world. The results indicate that diversity (ethnic and religious) plays a significant positive impact on international trade and environmental performance of high- and middle-income countries and vice versa with low-income countries. This study further suggested that diversity cannot be abbreviated; however, its disastrous effects may be curtailed by providing equal opportunities and peace in society to ensure the well-being of people through cohesiveness.

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Appendix

Appendix

List of high-income countries:

Andorra Ireland Qatar
Antigua and Barbuda Israel San Marino
Australia Italy Saudi Arabia
Austria Japan Seychelles
Bahamas, The Kuwait Singapore
Bahrain Latvia Slovak Republic
Barbados Liechtenstein Slovenia
Belgium Lithuania Spain
Brunei Darussalam Luxembourg Sweden
Canada Malta Hong Kong, China
Chile Monaco Hungary
Cyprus Netherlands Iceland
Czech Republic New Caledonia Switzerland
Denmark New Zealand Trinidad and Tobago
Estonia Norway United Arab Emirates
Finland Oman United Kingdom
France Palau United States
Germany Poland Uruguay
Greece Portugal  

List of middle-income countries:

Albania Cameroon Fiji Kiribati Morocco
Algeria Cape Verde Gabon Kyrgyz Republic Namibia
Angola China Georgia Lao PDR Nicaragua
Argentina Colombia Ghana Lebanon Nigeria
Armenia Congo, Rep. Grenada Lesotho Pakistan
Azerbaijan Costa Rica Guatemala Libya Panama
Bangladesh Cote d’Ivoire Guyana Macedonia, FYR Papua New Guinea
Belarus Croatia Honduras Malaysia Paraguay
Belize Cuba India Maldives Peru
Bhutan Djibouti Indonesia Marshall Islands Philippines
Bolivia Dominica Iran, Islamic Rep. Mauritania Romania
Bosnia and Herzegovina Dominican Republic Iraq Mauritius Russian Federation
Botswana Ecuador Jamaica Mexico Samoa
Brazil Egypt, Arab Rep. Jordan Micronesia, Fed. Sts. Sao Tome and Principe
Bulgaria El Salvador Kazakhstan Moldova Serbia and Montenegro
Cambodia Equatorial Guinea Kenya Mongolia Solomon Islands
Suriname Taiwan, China Timor-Leste Turkey South Africa
Swaziland Tajikistan Tonga Turkmenistan Sri Lanka
Syrian Arab Republic Thailand Tunisia Ukraine St. Lucia
Venezuela, RB Yemen, Rep. Vanuatu Uzbekistan Sudan
Vietnam Zambia    

List of low-income countries:

Afghanistan Liberia Senegal Eritrea
Benin Madagascar Sierra Leone Ethiopia
Burkina Faso Malawi Somalia Gambia, The
Burundi Mali Tanzania Guinea
Central African Republic Mozambique Togo Guinea-Bissau
Chad Nepal Uganda Haiti
Comoros Niger Rwanda Zimbabwe
Congo, Dem. Rep.    

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Ahmad, N., Amin, S. Does ethnic polarization stimulate or relegate trade and environmental performance? A global perspective. Environ Dev Sustain 22, 6513–6536 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-019-00497-z

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Keywords

  • Ethnic diversity
  • Religious diversity
  • International trade
  • Environmental performance

JEL Classification

  • O11
  • F10
  • F22
  • Q50
  • Z13