Advertisement

Impacts of soil and water conservation intervention on rural livelihoods in the Middle Suluh Valley, Tigray Region, northern Ethiopia

  • Solomon Hishe
  • James Lyimo
  • Woldeamlak Bewket
Article
  • 76 Downloads

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to examine impacts of soil and water conservation (SWC) practice on the livelihoods of the rural community in the Middle Suluh Valley, Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. A socioeconomic survey was conducted on 246 household heads to analyze the impact of SWC interventions on the livelihoods of the farmers. A multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze the livelihood and food security status of the respondents. By considering the independent variables of incomes generated from different sources and the dependent variable of respondent’s livelihood status, the final model fitting was statistically significant (p < 0.001) at 0.05 significance level and the Pearson goodness of fit is statistically significant (p = 1.000). The Cox and Snell R-square and Nagelkerke R-square values are 0.235 and 0.266, respectively, suggesting that between 24 and 27% of the variability was explained by the set of independent variables. The independent variable (income from different sources) classifies the dependent variable (livelihood status) by 58%, which is moderately adequate. The result shows that 93% of the interviewed farmers have been practicing SWC over the past 25 years. More than half of the respondents (60%) agreed that the current fertility of their farmland is highly improved after the implementation of SWC measures. Explicitly saying, 96% of the respondents observed a reduction of soil erosion and an increase of vegetation cover in their locality due to SWC measures. The overall livelihood of the community was measured with the framework of the sustainable rural livelihood (SRL), and the analysis shows that achievement of the capital assets from SWC activities was ranked as natural > physical = human > financial > social sequentially. In general, we conclude that SWC implemented in the study area has positively impacted on the livelihoods of the community and hence, we recommend that its sustainability should be given due attention at all levels.

Keywords

Soil and water conservation Sustainable rural livelihoods Capital assets Suluh 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The corresponding author would like to thank TRECCAfrica II for providing him PhD scholarship to study at the Institute of Resources Assessment, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We thank Mekelle University, College of Social Sciences and Languages for providing vehicle to the fieldwork for data collection. The first author is also grateful to Mekelle University for granting research fund under registration number CRPO/CSSL/PhD/003/08 and to Association of African Universities (AAU) for awarding small grants for thesis writing to the first author. Finally, we thank the two anonymous reviewers for providing insightful comments on the article.

References

  1. Adonay, H., Girma, T., & Hagos, T. (2014). Women’s participation in public administration in Tigray, Ethiopia: Institutional policy success with cultural challenge. International Journal of Current Research, 6(12), 11146–11154.Google Scholar
  2. Akale, A. T., Dagnew, D. C., Belete, M. A., Tilahun, S. A., Mekuria, W., & Steenhuis, T. S. (2017). Impact of soil depth and topography on the effectiveness of conservation practices on discharge and soil loss in the Ethiopian highlands. Land, 78(6), 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.3390/land6040078.Google Scholar
  3. Alemie, A. (2011). Coping with drought for food security in Tigray. Wageningen: Wageningen University.Google Scholar
  4. Bekerie, A. (2003). Iquib and Idir: Socio-economics traditions of the Ethiopians. Retrieved December 2, 2017, from http://www.tadias.com/v1n6/OP_2_2003-1.html.
  5. Berhane, T., & Gebre, M. (2015). Rural women land use right in Tigray Regional State: The case of Kafta Humra Woreda. Journal of Culture, Society and Development, 10, 47–61.Google Scholar
  6. Bezabih, B., Lemenih, M., & Regassa, A. (2016). Farmers perception on soil fertility status of small-scale farming system in southwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 7(9), 143–153.  https://doi.org/10.5897/JSSEM2016.0577.Google Scholar
  7. BoPF. (2010). Tigray regional state five years (2010/11–2014/15) growth and transformation plan 1, Mekelle.Google Scholar
  8. Campbell, B. M., Jeffrey, S., Kozanayi, W., Luckert, M., & Mutamba, M. (2002). Household livelihoods in semi-arid regions: Options and constraints. Bogor: Center for International Forestry Research.Google Scholar
  9. Carolyn, T., & Kwadwo, A. (2011). Responding to land degradation in the highlands of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. (No. 01142, IFPRI Discussion Paper).Google Scholar
  10. Chambers, R., & Conway, G. R. (1991). Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st century. IDS Discussion Paper 296. Brighton. ISBN: 0 903715 58 9.Google Scholar
  11. CIA. (2018). Fact book of Ethiopia. The world factbook—Central intelligence agency. Retrieved March 26, 2018, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/et.html.
  12. Cochran, W. (1963). G. 1963. Sampling techniques. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. DeLong, C., Cruse, R., & Wiener, J. (2015). The soil degradation paradox: Compromising our resources when we need them the most. Sustainability, 7, 866–879.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su7010866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dessalegn, R., Alula, P., & van Uffelen, J.-G. (2013). Food security, safety nets and social protection in Ethiopia (p. 580). Addis Ababa: Forum for Social Studies.Google Scholar
  15. DFID. (1999). Sustainable livelihoods guidance sheets. London: DFID.Google Scholar
  16. Esser, K., Vågen, T. G., & Haile, M. (2002). Soil conservation in Tigray, Ethiopia, Eldis. https://eldis.org/vfile/upload/1/document/0708/DOC12388.pdf.
  17. Farrington, J., Carney, D., Ashley, C., & Turton, C. (1999). Sustainable livelihoods in practice: Early applications of concepts in rural areas (Vol. 42). London: Natural Resources Perspective, Overseas Development Studies.Google Scholar
  18. FDRE. (1995). Proclamation of the constitution of the federal democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Proclamation No. 1/1995. Federal Negarit Gazeta of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, August 21 (pp. 38).Google Scholar
  19. FMoH. (2016). National health promotion and communication strategy 2016–2020. Abuja: FMoH.Google Scholar
  20. Food and Agricultural Organizations of United Nations (FAO). (2009). Eucalyptus in East Africa: The socio-economic and environmental issues. Addis Ababa: FAO.Google Scholar
  21. Gashaw, T. (2015). The implications of watershed management for reversing land degradation in Ethiopia. Research Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Management, 4(1), 5–12.Google Scholar
  22. Gashaw, T., Bantider, A., & G/Silassie, H. (2014). Land degradation in Ethiopia: Causes, impacts and rehabilitation techniques. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 4(9), 98–105. Retrieved from http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEES/article/viewFile/12963/13288.Google Scholar
  23. Habtamu, W. (2011). Irrigation management practices in Tigray (the case of Qorir small-scale irrigation scheme Klite-Awlalo Woreda, Eastern Zone of Tigray). Mekelle: Mekelle University.Google Scholar
  24. Hishe, S., Lyimo, J., & Bewket, W. (2017). Soil and water conservation effects on soil properties in the Middle Silluh Valley, northern Ethiopia. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 5(3), 231–240.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2017.06.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hurni, H. (1988). Degradation and conservation of the resources in the Ethiopian highlands. Mountain Research and Development, 8(2), 123–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hurni, H., Solomon, A., Amare, B., Berhanu, D., Ludi, E., Portner, B., & Gete, Z. (2010). Land degradation and sustainable land management in the highlands of Ethiopia. In H. Hurni, U. Wiesmann with international group of co-editors (Eds.), Global change and sustainable development: A synthesis of regional experiences from research partnerships (Vol. 5, pp. 187–207). Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South, University of Bern, Switzerland: Geographica Bernensia.Google Scholar
  27. Israel, G. D. (1992). Determining sample size (pp. 1–5). Gainesville: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, EDIS.Google Scholar
  28. Kiage, L. M. (2013). Perspectives on the assumed causes of land degradation in the rangelands of Sub-Saharan Africa. Progress in Physical Geography, 37(5), 664–684.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0309133313492543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kyawt, T., Rajendra, S., & Avishek, D. (2015). Assessment of land degradation and its impact on crop production in the Dry Zone of Myanmar. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 22(6), 533–544.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2015.1091046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mebrat, G. (2011). Breaking the norms: Gender and land rights in Tigray, Ethiopia. Norwagian University of Life Sciences, Masters Thesis.Google Scholar
  31. Mekuriaw, A., Heinimann, A., Zeleke, G., & Hurni, H. (2018). Factors influencing the adoption of physical soil and water conservation practices in the Ethiopian highlands. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 6(1), 23–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2017.12.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. NDRMC, & OCHA. (2017). Ethiopia: Humanitarian ressponse, Situation Report No. 09. (As at 28 February 2017). https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/sites/www.humanitarianresponse.info/files/documents/files/unocha_-_drmtwg_situation_report_-_january_-_february_2017_issue.pdf. Accessed 17 March 2018.
  33. Nkonya, E., Mirzabaev, A., & Von Braun, J. (Eds.). (2016). Economics of land degradation and improvement—A global assessment for sustainable development (pp. 1–13). London: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-19168-3.Google Scholar
  34. Nkonya, E., Pender, J., Kaizzi, K., Kato, E., Mugarura, S., Ssali, H., et al. (2008). Linkages between land management, land degradation, and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: the Case of Uganda. IFPRI research report No. 159 (Vol. 159).  https://doi.org/10.2499/9780896291683RR159.
  35. NPCUNE. (2015). Assessment of Ethiopia’s progress towards the MDGs. Addis Ababa: NPCUNE.Google Scholar
  36. Nyssen, J., Frankl, A., Zenebe, A., Deckers, J., & Poesen, J. (2015). Land management in the northern Ethiopian highlands: Local and global perspectives; past, present and future. Land Degradation and Development, 26, 759–764.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pender, J., & Gebremedhin, B. (2007). Determinants of agricultural and land management practices and impacts on crop production and household income in the highlands of Tigray, Ethiopia. Journal of African Economies, 17(3), 395–450.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jae/ejm028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Scherr, S. J., & Yadav, S. (1996). Land degradation in the developing world: Implications for food, agriculture, and the environment to 2020: Food, agriculture, and the environment discussion paper 14, Washington.Google Scholar
  39. Scoones, I. (1998). Sustainable rural livelihoods a framework for analysis. Working paper 72.Google Scholar
  40. Seaward, C. (2015). El Niño in Ethiopia: Programme observations on the impact of the Ethiopia drought and recommendations for action. https://www.oxfam.org. Accessed on 17 March 2018.
  41. Shimeles, D. (2012). Effectiveness of soil and water conservation measures for land restoration in the Wello area, northern Ethiopian highlands. Bonn: University of Bonn.Google Scholar
  42. TBoH. (2015). Tigray regional health bureau ten years health bulletin (EFY 19982007), Mekelle.Google Scholar
  43. TBWR. (2015). Tigray National Regional State, Bureau of water Resources: The next five fears growth and transformation plan (GTP-2), 2008–2012 E.C (Tigrigna version), Mekelle.Google Scholar
  44. Teshome, A., de Graaff, J., & Kassie, M. (2016). Household-level determinants of soil and water conservation adoption phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian highlands. Environmental Management, 57, 620–636.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-015-0635-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. UNICEF. (2016). Ethiopia El Nino emergency fast facts. Addis Ababa: UNICEF.Google Scholar
  46. Van der Veen, A., & Tagel, G. (2011). Effects of policy intervention on food security in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Ecology and Society, 16(1), 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wiseman, W., Van Domelen, J., & Coll-Black, S. (2010). Designing and implementing a rural safety net in a low income setting: Lessons learned from Ethiopia’s Productive Safety Net Program 2005–2009 (p. 56). Washington DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  48. Wolka, K. (2014). Effects of soil and water conservation measures and challenges for its adoption. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 7(4), 185–199.  https://doi.org/10.3923/jest.2014.185.199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. World Bank. (2012). Linking gender, environment, and poverty for sustainable development : A synthesis report on Ethiopia and Ghana. Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
  50. Zeweld, W., Van Huylenbroeck, G., Hidgot, A., Chandrakanth, M. G., & Speelman, S. (2015). Adoption of small-scale irrigation and its livelihood impacts in Northern Ethiopia. Irrigation and Drainage, 64(5), 655–668.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.1938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and Environmental StudiesMekelle UniversityMekelleEthiopia
  2. 2.Institute of Resource AssessmentUniversity of Dar es SalaamDar es SalaamTanzania
  3. 3.Department of Geography and Environmental StudiesAddis Ababa UniversityAddis AbabaEthiopia

Personalised recommendations