This research work has been performed to institute a proper landfill leachate treatment program by the integrated sequence of air stripping, coagulation–flocculation (CF), and adsorption. In this study, air stripping removes up to 96.3% of NH3–N, 49.3% of COD, and 74.1% of BOD5 within an optimum retention period of 36 h. Optimization of CF and adsorption were accomplished by employing central composite design of response surface methodology. The application of CF resulted in the removal of COD by 55.3%, BOD5 by 83.9%, color by 91.8%, and Hg by 42.2% at the optimized state of pH 5.2 and FeCl3 dose of 3.1 g/L. In case of adsorption, about 56.1% of COD and 89.2% of Hg removal were observed at the optimum conditions of pH 7, adsorbent dose of 0.6 g/L of chitosan beads, and 66.4 min of contact time. Langmuir isotherm model satisfactorily described adsorption isotherm and fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Adsorbent was characteristically specified by FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. Desorption study showed that 77.2% of adsorbed Hg could be recovered effectively by EDTA. The overall treatment schedule demonstrates a net removal of 96.3% of NH3–N, 91.8% of color, 95.8% of BOD5, 90.0% of COD, and 95.8% of Hg.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abood, A. R., Bao, J., Du, J., Zheng, D., & Luo, Y. (2014). Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration. Waste Management, 34(2), 439–447.
Amokrane, A., Comel, C., & Veron, J. (1997). Landfill leachates pretreatment by coagulation–flocculation. Water Research, 31(11), 2775–2782.
APHA. (1999). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (20th ed.). Washington: American Public Health Association.
Atmaca, A. (2009). Treatment of landfill leachate by using electro-Fenton method. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 163, 109–114.
Aziz, H. A., Alias, S., Adlan, M. N., Faridah, Asaari, A. H., & Zahari, M. S. (2007). Colour removal from landfill leachate by coagulation and flocculation processes. Bioresource Technology, 98(1), 218–220.
Bas, D., & Boyacı, İ. H. (2007). Modeling and optimization I: Usability of response surface methodology. Journal of Food Engineering, 78, 836–845.
Bezerra, M. A., Santelli, R. E., Oliveira, E. P., Villar, L. S., & Escaleira, L. A. (2008). Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry. Talanta, 76(5), 965–977.
Chattopadhyay, S., Dutta, A., & Ray, S. (2009). Municipal solid waste management in Kolkata, India: A review. Waste Management, 29(4), 1449–1458.
Chowdhury, A. K., Sarkar, A. D., & Bandyopadhyay, A. (2009). Rice husk ash as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue and congo red in aqueous phases. Clean—Soil, Air, Water, 37(7), 581–591.
Chung, Y. C., Li, Y. H., & Chen, C. C. (2005). Pollutant removal from aquaculture wastewater using the biopolymer chitosan at different molecular weights. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering, 40(9), 1775–1790.
De, S., Maiti, S. K., Hazra, T., Debsarkar, A., & Dutta, A. (2016). Leachate characterization and identification of dominant pollutants using leachate pollution index for an uncontrolled landfill site. Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 2(2), 177–186.
De, S., Maiti, S. K., Hazra, T., Debsarkar, A., & Dutta, A. (2017a). Appraisal of seasonal variation of groundwater quality near an uncontrolled municipal solid waste landfill in Kolkata, India. Global Nest Journal, 19(3), 367–376.
De, S., Maiti, S. K., Hazra, T., & Dutta, A. (2017b). A study on evaluating the impact of landfill leachate on groundwater quality in Kolkata, India. Pollution, 3(3), 443–452.
Foo, K. Y., & Hameed, B. H. (2009). An overview of landfill leachate treatment via activated carbon adsorption process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 171(1–3), 54–60.
Foo, K. Y., & Hameed, B. H. (2010). Insights into the modeling of adsorption isotherm systems. Chemical Engineering Journal, 156, 2–10.
Foo, K. Y., Lee, L. K., & Hameed, B. H. (2013). Batch adsorption of semi-aerobic landfill leachate by granular activated carbon prepared by microwave heating. Chemical Engineering Journal, 222, 259–264.
Gamage, A., & Shahidi, F. (2007). Use of chitosan for the removal of metal ion contaminants and proteins from water. Food Chemistry, 104(3), 989–996.
Ghafari, S., Aziz, H. A., Isa, M. H., & Zinatizadeh, A. A. (2009). Application of response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize coagulation–flocculation treatment of leachate using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) and alum. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 163(2–3), 650–656.
Gotvajn, A. Z., Tisler, T., & Zagorc-Koncan, J. (2009). Comparison of different treatment strategies for industrial landfill leachate. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162(2–3), 1446–1456.
Guo, J. S., Abbas, A. A., Chen, Y. P., Liu, Z. P., Fang, F., & Chen, P. (2010). Treatment of landfill leachate using a combined stripping, Fenton, SBR, and coagulation process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 178, 699–705.
Ho, Y. S., & McKay, G. (1999). Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes. Process Biochemistry, 34(5), 451–465.
Jeon, C., & Höll, W. H. (2003). Chemical modification of chitosan and equilibrium study for mercury ion removal. Water Research, 37(19), 4770–4780.
Kalčíková, G., Zupančič, M., Levei, E. A., Miclean, M., Englande, A. J., & Žgajnar Gotvajn, A. (2015). Application of multiple toxicity tests in monitoring of landfill leachate treatment efficiency. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(8), 489.
Kousalya, G. N., Rajiv Gandhi, M., & Meenakshi, S. (2010). Sorption of chromium (VI) using modified forms of chitosan beads. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 47(2), 308–315.
Lagergren, S. (1898). About the theory of so-called adsorption of soluble substances. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, 24, 1–6.
Li, W., Hua, T., Zhou, Q., Zhang, S., & Li, F. (2010). Treatment of stabilized landfill leachate by the combined process of coagulation/flocculation and powder activated carbon adsorption. Desalination, 264(1–2), 56–62.
Liu, X., Li, X. M., Yang, Q., Yue, X., Shen, T. T., Zheng, W., et al. (2012). Landfill leachate pretreatment by coagulation–flocculation process using iron-based coagulants: Optimization by response surface methodology. Chemical Engineering Journal, 200–202, 39–51.
Lu, X., Huangfu, X., & Ma, J. (2014). Removal of trace mercury (II) from aqueous solution by in situ formed Mn–Fe (hydr)oxides. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 280, 71–78.
Mahmud, K., Hossain, M. D., & Shams, S. (2012). Different treatment strategies for highly polluted landfill leachate in developing countries. Waste Management, 32(11), 2096–2105.
Maiti, S. K., De, S., Hazra, T., Debsarkar, A., & Dutta, A. (2016). Characterization of leachate and Its impact on surface and groundwater quality of a closed dumpsite: A case study at Dhapa, Kolkata, India. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 35, 391–399.
Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC). (2016). Municipal solid waste management and handling rules. New Delhi: MoEFCC, Government of India.
Modin, H., Persson, K. M., Andersson, A., & Praagh, M. V. (2011). Removal of metals from landfill leachate by sorption to activated carbon, bone meal and iron fines. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 189, 749–754.
Moradi, M., & Ghanbari, F. (2014). Application of response surface method for coagulation process in leachate treatment as pretreatment for Fenton process: Biodegradability improvement. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 4(C), 67–73.
Moraes, P. B., & Bertazolli, R. (2005). Electrodegradation of landfill leachate in a flow electrochemical reactor. Chemosphere, 58, 41–46.
Ngah, W. S. W., & Fatinathan, S. (2010). Pb(II) biosorption using chitosan and chitosan derivatives beads: Equilibrium, ion exchange and mechanism studies. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22(3), 338–346.
Oloibiri, V., Ufomba, I., Chys, M., Audenaert, W. T. M., Demeestere, K., & Van Hulle, S. W. H. (2015). A comparative study on the efficiency of ozonation and coagulation–flocculation as pretreatment to activated carbon adsorption of biologically stabilized landfill leachate. Waste Management, 43, 335–342.
Renou, S., Givaudan, J. G., Poulain, S., Dirassouyan, F., & Moulin, P. (2008). Landfill leachate treatment: Review and opportunity. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 150(3), 468–493.
Sletten, R. S., Benjamin, M. M., Horng, J. J., & Ferguson, J. F. (1995). Physical-chemical treatment of landfill leachate for metals removal. Pergamon, 29(10), 2376–2386.
Sohbatzadeh, H., Keshtkar, A. R., Safdari, J., & Fatemi, F. (2016). U(VI) biosorption by bi-functionalized Pseudomonas putida @ chitosan bead: Modeling and optimization using RSM. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 89, 647–658.
Weber, W. J., & Morris, J. C. (1963). Kinetics of adsorption on carbon from solution. Journal of Sanitation Engineering Division, 89, 31–60.
The first author would like to express her gratitude toward University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India, for granting the research fellowship and all the authors thank Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) for assisting in the field work.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
De, S., Hazra, T. & Dutta, A. Treatment of landfill leachate by integrated sequence of air stripping, coagulation–flocculation and adsorption. Environ Dev Sustain 21, 657–677 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-017-0053-3
- Landfill leachate
- Air stripping
- Response surface methodology
- Chitosan beads