Treatment of landfill leachate by integrated sequence of air stripping, coagulation–flocculation and adsorption

Abstract

This research work has been performed to institute a proper landfill leachate treatment program by the integrated sequence of air stripping, coagulation–flocculation (CF), and adsorption. In this study, air stripping removes up to 96.3% of NH3–N, 49.3% of COD, and 74.1% of BOD5 within an optimum retention period of 36 h. Optimization of CF and adsorption were accomplished by employing central composite design of response surface methodology. The application of CF resulted in the removal of COD by 55.3%, BOD5 by 83.9%, color by 91.8%, and Hg by 42.2% at the optimized state of pH 5.2 and FeCl3 dose of 3.1 g/L. In case of adsorption, about 56.1% of COD and 89.2% of Hg removal were observed at the optimum conditions of pH 7, adsorbent dose of 0.6 g/L of chitosan beads, and 66.4 min of contact time. Langmuir isotherm model satisfactorily described adsorption isotherm and fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Adsorbent was characteristically specified by FTIR and SEM with EDAX analysis. Desorption study showed that 77.2% of adsorbed Hg could be recovered effectively by EDTA. The overall treatment schedule demonstrates a net removal of 96.3% of NH3–N, 91.8% of color, 95.8% of BOD5, 90.0% of COD, and 95.8% of Hg.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  1. Abood, A. R., Bao, J., Du, J., Zheng, D., & Luo, Y. (2014). Non-biodegradable landfill leachate treatment by combined process of agitation, coagulation, SBR and filtration. Waste Management, 34(2), 439–447.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Amokrane, A., Comel, C., & Veron, J. (1997). Landfill leachates pretreatment by coagulation–flocculation. Water Research, 31(11), 2775–2782.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. APHA. (1999). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (20th ed.). Washington: American Public Health Association.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Atmaca, A. (2009). Treatment of landfill leachate by using electro-Fenton method. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 163, 109–114.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Aziz, H. A., Alias, S., Adlan, M. N., Faridah, Asaari, A. H., & Zahari, M. S. (2007). Colour removal from landfill leachate by coagulation and flocculation processes. Bioresource Technology, 98(1), 218–220.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bas, D., & Boyacı, İ. H. (2007). Modeling and optimization I: Usability of response surface methodology. Journal of Food Engineering, 78, 836–845.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bezerra, M. A., Santelli, R. E., Oliveira, E. P., Villar, L. S., & Escaleira, L. A. (2008). Response surface methodology (RSM) as a tool for optimization in analytical chemistry. Talanta, 76(5), 965–977.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Chattopadhyay, S., Dutta, A., & Ray, S. (2009). Municipal solid waste management in Kolkata, India: A review. Waste Management, 29(4), 1449–1458.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Chowdhury, A. K., Sarkar, A. D., & Bandyopadhyay, A. (2009). Rice husk ash as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue and congo red in aqueous phases. Clean—Soil, Air, Water, 37(7), 581–591.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Chung, Y. C., Li, Y. H., & Chen, C. C. (2005). Pollutant removal from aquaculture wastewater using the biopolymer chitosan at different molecular weights. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering, 40(9), 1775–1790.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. De, S., Maiti, S. K., Hazra, T., Debsarkar, A., & Dutta, A. (2016). Leachate characterization and identification of dominant pollutants using leachate pollution index for an uncontrolled landfill site. Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management, 2(2), 177–186.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. De, S., Maiti, S. K., Hazra, T., Debsarkar, A., & Dutta, A. (2017a). Appraisal of seasonal variation of groundwater quality near an uncontrolled municipal solid waste landfill in Kolkata, India. Global Nest Journal, 19(3), 367–376.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. De, S., Maiti, S. K., Hazra, T., & Dutta, A. (2017b). A study on evaluating the impact of landfill leachate on groundwater quality in Kolkata, India. Pollution, 3(3), 443–452.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Foo, K. Y., & Hameed, B. H. (2009). An overview of landfill leachate treatment via activated carbon adsorption process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 171(1–3), 54–60.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Foo, K. Y., & Hameed, B. H. (2010). Insights into the modeling of adsorption isotherm systems. Chemical Engineering Journal, 156, 2–10.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Foo, K. Y., Lee, L. K., & Hameed, B. H. (2013). Batch adsorption of semi-aerobic landfill leachate by granular activated carbon prepared by microwave heating. Chemical Engineering Journal, 222, 259–264.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Gamage, A., & Shahidi, F. (2007). Use of chitosan for the removal of metal ion contaminants and proteins from water. Food Chemistry, 104(3), 989–996.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Ghafari, S., Aziz, H. A., Isa, M. H., & Zinatizadeh, A. A. (2009). Application of response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize coagulation–flocculation treatment of leachate using poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) and alum. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 163(2–3), 650–656.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Gotvajn, A. Z., Tisler, T., & Zagorc-Koncan, J. (2009). Comparison of different treatment strategies for industrial landfill leachate. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 162(2–3), 1446–1456.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Guo, J. S., Abbas, A. A., Chen, Y. P., Liu, Z. P., Fang, F., & Chen, P. (2010). Treatment of landfill leachate using a combined stripping, Fenton, SBR, and coagulation process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 178, 699–705.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Ho, Y. S., & McKay, G. (1999). Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes. Process Biochemistry, 34(5), 451–465.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Jeon, C., & Höll, W. H. (2003). Chemical modification of chitosan and equilibrium study for mercury ion removal. Water Research, 37(19), 4770–4780.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Kalčíková, G., Zupančič, M., Levei, E. A., Miclean, M., Englande, A. J., & Žgajnar Gotvajn, A. (2015). Application of multiple toxicity tests in monitoring of landfill leachate treatment efficiency. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(8), 489.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Kousalya, G. N., Rajiv Gandhi, M., & Meenakshi, S. (2010). Sorption of chromium (VI) using modified forms of chitosan beads. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 47(2), 308–315.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Lagergren, S. (1898). About the theory of so-called adsorption of soluble substances. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, 24, 1–6.

  26. Li, W., Hua, T., Zhou, Q., Zhang, S., & Li, F. (2010). Treatment of stabilized landfill leachate by the combined process of coagulation/flocculation and powder activated carbon adsorption. Desalination, 264(1–2), 56–62.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Liu, X., Li, X. M., Yang, Q., Yue, X., Shen, T. T., Zheng, W., et al. (2012). Landfill leachate pretreatment by coagulation–flocculation process using iron-based coagulants: Optimization by response surface methodology. Chemical Engineering Journal, 200–202, 39–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Lu, X., Huangfu, X., & Ma, J. (2014). Removal of trace mercury (II) from aqueous solution by in situ formed Mn–Fe (hydr)oxides. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 280, 71–78.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Mahmud, K., Hossain, M. D., & Shams, S. (2012). Different treatment strategies for highly polluted landfill leachate in developing countries. Waste Management, 32(11), 2096–2105.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Maiti, S. K., De, S., Hazra, T., Debsarkar, A., & Dutta, A. (2016). Characterization of leachate and Its impact on surface and groundwater quality of a closed dumpsite: A case study at Dhapa, Kolkata, India. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 35, 391–399.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC). (2016). Municipal solid waste management and handling rules. New Delhi: MoEFCC, Government of India.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Modin, H., Persson, K. M., Andersson, A., & Praagh, M. V. (2011). Removal of metals from landfill leachate by sorption to activated carbon, bone meal and iron fines. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 189, 749–754.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Moradi, M., & Ghanbari, F. (2014). Application of response surface method for coagulation process in leachate treatment as pretreatment for Fenton process: Biodegradability improvement. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 4(C), 67–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Moraes, P. B., & Bertazolli, R. (2005). Electrodegradation of landfill leachate in a flow electrochemical reactor. Chemosphere, 58, 41–46.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Ngah, W. S. W., & Fatinathan, S. (2010). Pb(II) biosorption using chitosan and chitosan derivatives beads: Equilibrium, ion exchange and mechanism studies. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22(3), 338–346.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Oloibiri, V., Ufomba, I., Chys, M., Audenaert, W. T. M., Demeestere, K., & Van Hulle, S. W. H. (2015). A comparative study on the efficiency of ozonation and coagulation–flocculation as pretreatment to activated carbon adsorption of biologically stabilized landfill leachate. Waste Management, 43, 335–342.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Renou, S., Givaudan, J. G., Poulain, S., Dirassouyan, F., & Moulin, P. (2008). Landfill leachate treatment: Review and opportunity. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 150(3), 468–493.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Sletten, R. S., Benjamin, M. M., Horng, J. J., & Ferguson, J. F. (1995). Physical-chemical treatment of landfill leachate for metals removal. Pergamon, 29(10), 2376–2386.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Sohbatzadeh, H., Keshtkar, A. R., Safdari, J., & Fatemi, F. (2016). U(VI) biosorption by bi-functionalized Pseudomonas putida @ chitosan bead: Modeling and optimization using RSM. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 89, 647–658.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Weber, W. J., & Morris, J. C. (1963). Kinetics of adsorption on carbon from solution. Journal of Sanitation Engineering Division, 89, 31–60.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The first author would like to express her gratitude toward University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India, for granting the research fellowship and all the authors thank Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) for assisting in the field work.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sushmita De.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 11 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

De, S., Hazra, T. & Dutta, A. Treatment of landfill leachate by integrated sequence of air stripping, coagulation–flocculation and adsorption. Environ Dev Sustain 21, 657–677 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-017-0053-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Landfill leachate
  • Air stripping
  • Coagulation–flocculation
  • Adsorption
  • Response surface methodology
  • Chitosan beads