Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 543–567 | Cite as

Delineation of potential ground water-bearing zones in the Barind tract of West Bengal, India

  • Rajib Tarani Das
  • Swades Pal


The Barind tract of West Bengal is an area of tropical sub-humid region composed of old alluvial soil. The area has high water demand due to growing population pressure and intensification in agricultural activity. These create huge stress on surface and ground water availability. Continuous withdrawal of ground water has become an alternative source of irrigation water which has also again made the condition critical. Ground water level has been lowered down drastically in many parts in this region. Under this circumstance, it is necessary to delineate potential ground water-bearing layers. Therefore, the present study attempts to identify potential ground water-bearing zones to manage ground water effectively. Instead of usually used parameters for ground water potentiality delineation here only some particular litholog parameters like breadth of water-bearing layer, depth of water-bearing layer, presence of clay layer above or below major water-bearing layer have been considered for delimiting the same. The result shows that out of total area, 60% area (405,382.2 ha) falls under very low to low potential ground water-bearing zone and only 8.19% area (55,634.97 ha) is potential. Considering this spatial pattern of ground water availability, harvesting structure and magnitude of water withdrawing should be designed.


Barind tract Potential ground water-bearing zone (PGWBZ) Litholog parameters Weighted linear combination (WLC) Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) Drainage evolution 


  1. Adham, M. I., Jahan, C. S., Mazumder, Q. H., Hossain, M. M. A., & Haque, A. M. (2010). Study on groundwater recharge potentiality of Barind Tract, Rajshahi district, Bangladesh using GIS and remote sensing techniques. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 75(2), 432–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alam, M. K., Hassan, A. K. M. S., Khan, M. R., & Whitney, J. W. (1990). Geological Map of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Geological Survey of Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  3. Alam, M. S., & Paepe, R. (1996). Palaeosols in the Quaternary stratigraphy in north-western Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Geology, 2, 15–36.Google Scholar
  4. Barik, K. K., Jeet, R., Annaduari, R., & Tripathy, J. K. (2016). Hydrogeological mapping and identification of groundwater recharge potential zone of Reamal Block Deogarh District, Odisha—A geospatial technology approach. International Journal of Advanced Remote Sensing and GIS, 5(6), 1829–1843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boobalan, C., & Gurugnanam, B. (2016). Mapping of groundwater potential zones in Sarabanga Sub-basin, Cauvery River, South India using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 6(2), 364–369.Google Scholar
  6. Chen, C., Zhao, N., & Yue, T. (2015). A generalization of inverse distance weighting method via regression and its application to surface modeling. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8(9), 6623–6633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chowdhury, A., Jha, M. K., & Chowdary, V. M. (2010). Delineation of groundwater recharge zones and identification of artificial recharge sites in West Medinipur District, West Bengal using RS, GIS and MCDM techniques. Environmental Earth Sciences, 59(6), 1209–1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Das, P. (2014). Hydro-geomorphic characteristics of Kuya river basin in Eastern India and their impacts on settlements and agriculture. Un published thesis, Visva Bharati University, India. pp. 210–236.Google Scholar
  9. Das, R. T., & Pal, S. (2016a). Identification of water bodies from multispectral landsat imageries of Barind Tract of West Bengal. International Journal of Innovative Research and Review, 4(1), 26–37.Google Scholar
  10. Das, R. T., & Pal, S. (2016b). Spatial association of wetlands over physical variants in Barind Tract of West Bengal, India. Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management, 4(2), 103–115.Google Scholar
  11. Fergusson, J. (1863). On recent changes in the delta of the Ganges. Journal of Geological Society, London, 19, 322–354.Google Scholar
  12. Ganapuram, S., Kumar, G., Krishna, I., Kahya, E., & Demirel, M. (2008). Mapping of groundwater potential zones in the Musi basin using remote sensing and GIS. Advances in Engineering Software, 40, 506–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gates, J. B., Steele, G. V., Nasta, P., & Szilagyi, J. (2013). Lithological influences on groundwater recharge through incised glacial till from profile to regional scales: Evidence from glaciated eastern Nebraska, Water resour. Res, 50, 1–16.Google Scholar
  14. Grabs, T., Seibert, J., Bishop, K., & Laudon, H. (2009). Modeling spatial patterns of saturated areas: A comparison of the topographic wetness index and a dynamic distributed model, Elsevier. Journal of Hydrology, 373, 15–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Haque, M. N., Keramat, M., Alamgir, M., & Shahid, S. (2011). Hydrostratigraphic study in the western part of Bangladesh in relation to groundwater potentiality. Journal of Earth Science and Engineering, 7, 1668–1674.Google Scholar
  16. Hassan, S., & Mahmud-ul-islam, S. (2013). Drought vulnerability assessment in the high Barind Tract of Bangladesh using MODIS NDVI and land surface temperature (LST) imageries. International Journal of Science and Research, 26, 2319–7064.Google Scholar
  17. Hoque, S., & Burgess, A. W. G. (2012). 14C dating of deep groundwater in the Bengal Aquifer System, Bangladesh: Implications for aquifer anisotropy, recharge sources and sustainability. Mohammad Journal of Hydrology, 34, 209–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Huang, C., Yeh, H., Lin, H., Lee, S., Hsu, K., & Lee, C. (2013). Groundwater recharge and exploitative potential zone mapping using GIS and GOD techniques. Environmental Earth Sciences, 68(1), 267–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jaiswal, R. K., Mukherjee, S., Krishnamurthy, J., & Saxena, R. (2003). Role of remote sensing and GIS techniques for generation of groundwater prospect zones towards rural development—an approach. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 24, 993–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kaliraj, S., Chandrasekar, N., & Magesh, N. S. (2015). Evaluation of multiple environmental factors for site-specific groundwater recharge structures in the Vaigai River upper basin, Tamil Nadu, India, using GIS-based weighted overlay analysis. Environ Earth Sci, 74, 4355–4380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Khan, M. R. (2002). Plate Tectonics and Bangladesh. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh Science, Golden Jubilee Issue, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 28(2), 39–62.Google Scholar
  22. Larson, G. L. (1996). Development of a 10 years limnological study of Crater Lake, Crater Lake National park, Oregon, USA. Lake and Reservoir Management, 12, 221–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Magesh, N. S., Chandrasekar, N., & Soundranayagam, J. P. (2012a). Delineation of groundwater potential zones in Theni district, Tamil Nadu, using remote sensing, GIS and MIF techniques. Geoscience Frontiers, 3(2), 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Magesh, N. S., Chandrasekar, N., & Soundranayagam, J. P. (2012b). Delineation of groundwater potential zones in Theni district, Tamil Nadu, using remote sensing, GIS and MIF techniques. Geoscience Frontiers, 3(2), 189–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mjemah, I. C., & Walraevens, K. (2015). Hydrogeological mapping and estimation of potential evapotranspiration and recharge rate of Quaternary sand aquifers in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. International Journal Of Geomatics And Geosciences, 6(2), 1539–1555.Google Scholar
  26. Mondal, D., & Pal, S. (2015). A multi-parametric spatial modeling of vulnerability due to arsenic pollution in Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India. Arabian Journal of Geoscience. doi: 10.1007/s12517-015-1809-4.Google Scholar
  27. Monsur, M. H., Tooley, M. J., Ghatak, G. S., Chandra, P. R., Roy, R. K., Audhikari, P. C., et al. (2001). A review and correlation of quaternary deposits exposed in the Bengal Basin and its surrounding areas. Bangladesh Journal of Geology, 20, 33–54.Google Scholar
  28. Palaka, R., & Sankark, G. J. (2015). Identification of Potential Zones for Groundwater Recharge in Kosigi Mandal, Kurnool District, Using Remote Sensing And GIS. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, 5(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pitz, C. F. (2016). Predicted impacts of climate change on groundwater resources of Washington State (pp. 1–125). Washington: Environmental Assessment Program Washington State Department of Ecology Olympia.Google Scholar
  30. Rahman, M., & Mahbub, A. Q. M. (2012). Lithological study and mapping of Barind Tract using borehole log data with GIS: In the context of Tanore Upazila. Earth and Environmental Science, 4, 349–357.Google Scholar
  31. Rashid, B., Islam, S. U., & Islam, B. (2015). Sub-Surface Geology and Evolution of the Barind Tract, Bangladesh. American Journal of Earth Sciences, 2(2), 22–38.Google Scholar
  32. Saaty, T. L. (1980). The analytic hierarchy process. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  33. Saaty, T. L. (1990). An exposition of the AHP in reply to the paper “Remarks on the analytic hierarchyprocess”. Management Science, 36(3), 259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Saaty, T. L. (1999). Fundamentals of the analytic network process, International Symposium of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (ISAHP). Japan: Kobe.Google Scholar
  35. Saaty, T. L. (2004). Fundamentals of the analytic network process—Multiple networks with benefits, costs, opportunities and risks. Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering, 13(3), 348–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sakiur Rahman, A. T. M., Kamruzzaman, M., Sarwar Jahan, C., Mazumder, Q. H., & Hossain, A. (2016). Evaluation of spatio-temporal dynamics of water table in NW Bangladesh: an integrated approach of GIS and Statistics. Sustainable Water Resources Management, 2(3), 297–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sanyal, J., & Lu, X. X. (2006). GIS-based flood hazard mapping at different administrative scales: a case study in Gangetic West Bengal, India. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 27, 207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sar, N., Chatterjee, S., & Adhikari, M. D. (2016). Integrated remote sensing and GIS based spatial modeling through analytical hierarchy process. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 1(31), 1–21.Google Scholar
  39. Sehra, S. K., Brar, Y. S., & Kaur, S. (2012). Multi criteria decision making approach for selecting effort estimation model. International Journal of Computer Applications, 39(1), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shahinuzzaman, M., Mostafa, S., Nasir Uddin, K. M., Islam, M. K., Alibuddin, M., & Haque, M. N. (2016). Hydrostratigraphy and its relation to ground-water potentiality of an area of the Ganges River Delta in Bangladesh. World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 4, 10–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shamudduha, M., Taylor, R. G., Ahmes, K. M., & Zahid, A. (2011). The impact of intensive ground water abstraction on recharge to a shallow regional aquifer system: Evidence from Bangladesh. Hydrogeology Journal, 19(4), 901–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sujatha, K. N., Kavya, G., Manasa, P., & Divya, K. (2016). Assessment of soil properties to improve water holding capacity in soils. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3(3), 1777–1783.Google Scholar
  43. Van der Wal, A. (2010). Understanding Groundwater & Wells in manual drilling Instruction handbook for manual drilling teams on hydro-geology for well drilling, well installation and well development. PRACTICA, Foundation, 3, 1–41.Google Scholar
  44. Wang, Y., Li, Z., Tang, Z., & Zeng, G. (2011). A GIS-based spatial multicriteria approach for flood risk assessment in Dongting lake region, Hunan, Central China. Water Resour Manag, 25(13), 3465–3484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of Gour BangaMaldaIndia

Personalised recommendations