Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 295–310 | Cite as

Challenges of small protected areas in urban cities: a case study of Okhla Bird Sanctuary, India

  • Niraj Sharma
  • Shweta Gaur
  • Rajni Dhyani
  • Anil Singh
Case Study


Protected areas have been earmarked throughout the world for the purpose of conserving the biodiversity. The protected areas are facing serious threats due to rapid urban growth, especially in the developing countries like India. The current threats and impacts of urbanization on the Okhla Bird Sanctuary (Delhi, India) have been presented in this paper as a case in point. Uncontrolled urbanization and the lack of policy implementation have been identified as one of the major contributors to incessant biodiversity loss in India and other countries. In addition, a possible management framework for a smaller protected area in an urban setting is presented in brief.


Protected areas Urbanization Buffer zones Okhla Bird Sanctuary Important bird areas 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niraj Sharma
    • 1
  • Shweta Gaur
    • 1
  • Rajni Dhyani
    • 2
  • Anil Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Science DivisionCSIR-Central Road Research Institute (CRRI)New DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Academy of Scientific and Industrial Research (AcSIR), Environmental Science DivisionCSIR-Central Road Research Institute (CRRI)New DelhiIndia

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