The sustainability of New Zealand climate change policy: an ethical overview

Abstract

Through a theory-driven thematic analysis, the paper gauges how, since 1990, New Zealand (NZ) Governments have approached climate change ethics and provides insight into the importance of ethics in the broader context of sustainable development and global sustainability. Analysis of the policy-related data identified two main ethical themes labelled standard self-interest and advocacy. The data show that despite some advocacy consistent with urging the objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in the international arena, Governments from 1990 to 2008 have held back to an extent on climate change policy development having operated broadly under a “standard self-interest” approach. Since 2008, the current Government has also held back on policy development and is operating under a particularly narrow, highly unethical and unjust form of self-interest. Strong criticism of the Government is therefore warranted. The paper has also highlighted the significant consensus around the broad overarching operational conclusions of sustainable development. The paper concludes, inter alia, that the NZ Government should advocate to the international community to achieve, and among their people to support, the objective of the UNFCCC, while advocating at the national and international levels for a science-informed global ethic on sustainable development. The same logic would apply to all other UNFCCC members, of which it appears many are also operating unethically and unjustly on this global transformational issue.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Notes

  1. 1.

    As currently there are no explicitly stated global multilateral goals/objectives/ideals or indeed related range of supporting values/principles of SD (Lélé 1991; Kates et al. 2005; International Environmental Governance Architecture Research Group et al. 2011). Furthermore framing the situation in terms of the overarching goal being to achieve global sustainability, instead of SD (as a process that gets you there) (UN DESA 2010, p. 1), could be more effective in achieving this apparent ideal.

  2. 2.

    The goal being well-being for all, including future generations (WCED 1987, p. xiv).

  3. 3.

    Follow-up was also supported by academic commentators (McChesney 1991).

  4. 4.

    Through its recalling of the provisions of General Assembly resolution 44/228 and subsequent recalling of resolution 42/187 on the report of the WCED (UNGA 1989, p. 152; UNGA 1987).

  5. 5.

    For example if prominent agricultural sector still isn’t part of NZ ETS and NZ is Party to another target agreement like the CP1 (MfE 2005; MfE 2009d, p. 9; ETS Review Panel 2011, p. 22).

  6. 6.

    NZ has globally one of the highest per capita emissions rates (MfE 2011b, p. 4).

  7. 7.

    Noting that basic human needs, as well as the availability of any resources identified as essential to meet these needs, appear to also fit the planetary boundaries concept.

References

  1. Ad hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action (AWG-LCA). (2012). Report on the workshop on equitable access to sustainable development: Revised report by the Chair. United Nations.

  2. Adams, A. (2012). Opening address to the Rio + 20 summit. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/opening-address-rio%2020-summit. Accessed August, 2 2012.

  3. Aldred, J. (2009). Ethics and climate change cost-benefit analysis: Stern and after. New Political Economy, 14(4), 469–488. doi:10.1080/13563460903288221.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Anderson, K., & Bows, A. (2011). Beyond ‘dangerous’ climate change: Emission scenarios for a new world. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A, 369, 20–44.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Australian Academy of Science (AAS). (2010). The science of climate change: Questions and answers. Canberra: Australian Academy of Science.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bergh, J. C. J. M. v. d. (2009). The GDP paradox. Journal of Economic Psychology, 30(2), 117–135. doi:10.1016/j.joep.2008.12.001.

  7. Biermann, F. (2012). Planetary boundaries and earth system governance: Exploring the links. Ecological Economics, 81, 4–9. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.02.016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Biermann, F., Abbott, K., Andresen, S., Bäckstrand, K., Bernstein, S., Betsill, M. M., et al. (2012). Navigating the anthropocene: Improving earth system governance. Science, 335(6074), 1306–1307. doi:10.1126/science.1217255.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Boston, J. (2008). Global climate change policies: From Bali to Copenhagen and beyond. Policy Quarterly, 4(1), 50–60.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Boston, J. (2009). Climate change—Overcoming the daunting political challenge. Public Sector, 32(2), 24.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Boston, J. (2011). Biophysical limits and green growth. Policy Quarterly, 7(4), 34–42.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Boston, J., Bradstock, A., & Eng, D. (Eds.). (2010). Public policy—Why ethics matters. Acton: ANU E Press.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Boyatzis, R. E. (1998). Transforming qualitative research: Thematic analysis and code development. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Bridges, S. (2012). New Zealand national statement to UNFCCC conference of the parties (COP18). http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/new-zealand-national-statement-unfccc-conference-parties-cop18. Accessed December, 22 2012.

  16. Brito, L., & Smith, M. S. (2012). State of the planet declaration. Planet under pressure. London.

  17. Broome, J. (2008). The ethics of climate change: Pay now or pay more later? Scientific American , 298(6), 96–102.

  18. Brown, D. A. (2002). American heat: Ethical problems with the United States’ response to global warming. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Brown, D. A. (2003). The importance of expressly examining global warming policy issues through an ethical prism. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions, 13(4), 229–234. doi:10.1016/s0959-3780(03)00053-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Brown, D. A. (2010). Are ethical arguments for climate change action weaker than self-interest based arguments? Why taking ethical arguments off the table is like a soccer team unilaterally taking the goalie out of the net. http://rockblogs.psu.edu/climate/2010/08/are-ethical-arguments-for-climate-change-action-weaker-than-self-interest-based-arguments-why-taking.html. Accessed January, 2012.

  21. Brown, D. A. (2011). Going deeper on what happened in Durban: An ethical critique of Durban outcomes. http://rockblogs.psu.edu/climate/2011/12/going-deeper-on-what-happened-in-durban-an-ethical-critique-of-durban-outcomes.html. Accessed December, 25 2012.

  22. Brown, D. A. (2013). Climate change ethics: Navigating the perfect moral storm. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Buhrs, T. (2008). Climate change policy and New Zealand’s ‘national interest’: The need for embedding climate change policy into a sustainable development agenda. Political Science, 60(1), 61–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Chapman, R., & Boston, J. (2011). Gazetting New Zealand’s 2050 emissions target’: Submission on New Zealand’s 2050 greenhouse gas emissions target. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/climate/emissions-target-2050/submissions/08-ralph-chapman-jonathan-boston.pdf. Accessed January 25, 2012.

  25. Charlesworth, M., & Okereke, C. (2010). Policy response to rapid climate change: An epistemological critique of dominant approaches. Global Environmental Change, 20(1), 121–129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Clark, H. (2002). Kyoto protocol signing of instrument of ratification. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/kyoto-protocol-signing-instrument-ratification. Accessed March 5, 2012.

  27. Common, M., & Stagl, S. (2005). Ecological economics: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  28. Deigh, J. (2010). An introduction to ethics (Cambridge introductions to philosophy). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  29. Dickson, D. (2012). After Rio + 20, developing countries must take the lead. http://www.scidev.net/en/science-and-innovation-policy/science-at-rio-20/editorials/after-rio-20-developing-countries-must-take-the-lead.html. Accessed July 15, 2012.

  30. Dower, N. (2004). The earth charter as a global ethic. Paper presented at the IUCN third world conservation congress, Bangkok.

  31. Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB). (2012a). Summary of the Doha climate change conference. http://www.iisd.ca/vol12/enb12567e.html. Accessed January 10, 2013.

  32. Earth Negotiations Bulletin (ENB). (2012b). Summary of the United Nations conference on sustainable development. http://www.iisd.ca/vol27/enb2751e.html. Accessed July 1, 2012.

  33. Emissions Trading Scheme Review Panel (ETS Review Panel). (2011). Doing New Zealand’s fair share. Emissions trading scheme review 2011: final report. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

  34. ESSP. (2001). The amsterdam declaration on global change. http://www.essp.org/index.php?id=41&type=98&L=0%2F%2Fassets%2Fsnippets%2F%20%EF%BF%BD%C5%A0%2F%2F%3F_PHPLIB%5Blibdir%5D%3D. Accessed June 15, 2012.

  35. ESSP, & ICSU. (2012). Rio + 20 Policy Brief #5: Interconnected risks and solutions for a planet under pressure. Paper presented at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio de Janeiro.

  36. Gardiner, S. M. (2004). Ethics and global climate change. Ethics, 114(3), 555–600.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Gleick, P. H., Adams, R. M., Amasino, R. M., Anders, E., Anderson, D. J., Anderson, W. W., et al. (2010). Climate change and the integrity of science. Science, 328(5979), 689–690. doi:10.1126/science.328.5979.689.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Goff, P. (2003). The ethics of foreign policy. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/ethics-foreign-policy. Accessed December 20, 2011.

  39. Griffiths, M., & O’Callaghan, T. (2002). International relations: The key concepts. London, NY: Routledge.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  40. Groser, T. (2009). Climate change, trade and agricultureAddress to federated farmers. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/climate-change-trade-and-agriculture-address-federated-farmers. Accessed January 15, 2012.

  41. Groser, T. (2011). National statement to COP 17: Durban. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/national-statement-cop-17-durban. Accessed January 25, 2012.

  42. Grundy, K. J. (1997). Sustainable management: A sustainable ethic? Sustainable Development, 5(3), 119–129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Halpern, S. (1992). United Nations conference on environment and development: Process and documentation. Providence, RI: Academic Council for the United Nations System (ACUNS).

    Google Scholar 

  44. Harris, J. M. (2000). Basic principles of sustainable development. Medford: Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2007). Climate change 2007: Synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva.

  46. International Environmental Governance Architecture Research Group, Earth System Governance Project, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, United Nations University Institute for Advanced Studies, & Tokyo Institute of Technology. (2011). Towards a charter moment—Hakone vision on governance for sustainability in the 21st century. The earth system governance Hakone vision factory: Bridging science policy boundaries. Hakone, Japan.

  47. International Institute for Sustainable Development About IISD. (2011). http://www.iisd.org/about/. Accessed December 2011.

  48. Jackson, T. (2009). Prosperity without growth: Economics for a finite planet. London: Earthscan.

  49. Jamieson, D. (1992). Ethics, public-policy, and global warming. Science, Technology and Human Values, 17(2), 139–153. doi:10.1177/016224399201700201.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Kates, R. W., Parris, T. M., & Leiserowitz, A. A. (2005). What is sustainable development? Goals, indicators, values, and practice. Environment, 47(3), 8–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Kelly, G. (2010). Climate change policy: Actions and barriers in New Zealand. International Journal of Climate Change Impacts and Responses, 2(1), 277–290.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Laugesen, R. (2012). Sea change. New Zealand Listener.

  53. Lélé, S. M. (1991). Sustainable development: A critical review. World Development, 19(6), 607–621. doi:10.1016/0305-750x(91)90197-p.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Macey, A. (2007). New Zealand’s policy on post-2012 international climate change arrangements. In J. Boston (Ed.), Towards a new global climate treaty—Looking beyond 2012. Wellington: Institute for Governance and Policy Studies.

    Google Scholar 

  55. McChesney, I. G. (1991). The Brundtland report and sustainable development in New Zealand. Information paper. Lincoln University and University of Canterbury, Centre for Resource Management.

  56. MfE. (1991). Climate change: The consensus and the debate. Wellington: New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

    Google Scholar 

  57. MfE. (1997). Upton announces climate change position. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/upton-announces-climate-change-position Accessed March 1, 2012.

  58. MfE. (2002a). Climate change II: New policies. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/climate/resources/cabinet-papers/pol-02-72.pdf. Accessed December 20, 2011.

  59. MfE. (2002b). National communication 2001, New Zealand’s third national communication under the framework convention on climate change. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

    Google Scholar 

  60. MfE. (2002c). National interest analysis, Kyoto protocol to the UN framework convention on climate change. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

    Google Scholar 

  61. MfE. (2005). Carbon tax will not go ahead in 2007. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/carbon-tax-will-not-go-ahead-2007. Accessed December 21, 2011.

  62. MfE. (2007). New Zealand’s climate change solutions: An overview. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

    Google Scholar 

  63. MfE. (2008a). Climate change select committee established. http://beehive.govt.nz/release/climate-change-select-committee-established. Accessed February 16, 2012.

  64. MfE. (2008b). Historic climate change legislation passes. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/historic-climate-change-legislation-passes. Accessed January 15, 2011.

  65. MfE. (2009a). Balanced new law important step on climate change. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/balanced-new-law-important-step-climate-change. Accessed February 10, 2012.

  66. MfE. (2009b). Climate change: New Zealand’s 2020 emissions reduction target. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/climate/emissions-target-2020/cab-paper-2020.html. Accessed January 15, 2012.

  67. MfE. (2009c). Government cautious over NZ’s Kyoto surplus. http://beehive.govt.nz/release/government-cautious-over-nz%E2%80%99s-kyoto-surplus. Accessed January 16, 2012.

  68. MfE. (2009d). New Zealand’s fifth national communication under the framework convention on climate change. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

    Google Scholar 

  69. MfE. (2009e). New Zealand’s 2020 targetFurther analysis and options. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/climate/emissions-target-2020/09-b-01825.html. Accessed January 15, 2012.

  70. MfE. (2009f). Statement made by New Zealand ambassador for climate change, Dr Adrian Macey, to the United Nations climate change negotiating session on 10 August 2009 in Bonn, Germany. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/climate/emissions-target-2020/statement-nz-ambassador.html. Accessed January 15, 2012.

  71. MfE. (2011a). Durban climate change outcome welcomed. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/durban-climate-change-outcome-welcomed. Accessed January 20, 2012.

  72. MfE. (2011b). Gazetting New Zealand’s 2050 emissions target—Minister’s position paper. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

    Google Scholar 

  73. MfE. (2011c). Govt sets-50 % by 2050 emissions reduction target. http://beehive.govt.nz/release/govt-sets-50-2050-emissions-reduction-target. Accessed January 18, 2012.

  74. MfE. (2012a). Government announces ETS amendments. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/government-announces-ets-amendments. Accessed August 10, 2012.

  75. MfE. (2012b). New Zealand commits to UN framework convention. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/new-zealand-commits-un-framework-convention. Accessed December 22, 2012.

  76. MfE. (2013). New Zealand’s greenhouse gas inventory and net position report 19902011. Snapshot April 2013. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

  77. MfE, & New Zealand Climate Change Programme. (1990). Responding to climate change: A discussion of options for New Zealand. Wellington: New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

  78. MfE(a). (2012). Amendments to the New Zealand emissions trading scheme (NZ ETS): Questions and answers. http://www.climatechange.govt.nz/emissions-trading-scheme/ets-amendments/questions-answers.html. Accessed December 15, 2012.

  79. MfE(b). (2011). History of climate change policy development. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/climate/policies-initiatives/history/index.html. Accessed December 16, 2011.

  80. Murray, J. (2012). US intelligence community warns of rising climate security threat. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/dec/11/intelligence-community-climate-security-threat. Accessed December 20, 2012.

  81. NZ Government. (2008). Emissions trading bulletin: A guide to the climate change (emissions trading and renewable preference) bill as reported back to Parliament by the Finance and Expenditure Committee: Emissions Trading. http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/climate/emissions-trading-bulletin-5/emissions-trading-bulletin-5.pdf. Accessed November 19, 2012.

  82. NZ Government. (2011). Submission for the Rio + 20 process by New Zealand. United Nations.

  83. One News. (2012). John Key defends Kyoto decision. http://tvnz.co.nz/politics-news/john-key-defends-kyoto-decision-5209727. Accessed December 22, 2012.

  84. “Return to Rio: Second chance for the planet”. (2012). Nature, 486(7401), 19–19. doi:10.1038/486019a.

  85. Parker, D. (2007a). A new approach to addressing deforestation. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/new-approach-addressing-deforestation. Accessed January 10, 2012.

  86. Parker, D. (2007b). A New Zealand emissions trading scheme. http://www.beehive.govtnz/speech/new-zealand-emissions-trading-scheme. Accessed January 16, 2012.

  87. Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Parties to the UNFCCC). (2011). Part two: Action taken by the conference of the parties at its seventeenth session. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth session, held in Durban from 28 November to 11 December 2011. United Nations.

  88. Provost, C. (2013). Environmental threats could push billions into extreme poverty, warns UN. http://m.guardiannews.com/global-development/2013/mar/14/environmental-threats-extreme-poverty-un. Accessed March 15, 2013.

  89. Rockstrom, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K., Persson, A., Chapin, F. S., Lambin, E. F., et al. (2009a). Planetary boundaries: Exploring the safe operating space for humanity. Ecology and Society, 14(2), 302–332.

  90. Rockstrom, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K., Persson, A., Chapin, F. S., Lambin, E. F., et al. (2009b). A safe operating space for humanity. Nature, 461(7263), 472–475. doi:10.1038/461472a.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Schonfeld, M. (2011). Plan B: Global ethics on climate change. Journal of Global Ethics, 7(2), 129–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Shue, H. (1995). Ethics, the environment and the changing international order. International Affairs, 71(3), 453–461.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Singer, P. (1993). How are we to live? Ethics in an age of self-interest. Melbourne: Text Publishing.

  94. Smith, N. (2010). New Zealand’s national statement to COP 16: Cancun, Mexico. http://beehive.govt.nz/speech/new-zealand039s-national-statement-cop-16-cancun-mexico. Accessed January 16, 2012.

  95. Steffen, W., Crutzen, P. J., & McNeill, J. R. (2007). The anthropocene: Are humans now overwhelming the great forces of nature? Ambio, 36(8), 614–621.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. Stern, N. (2009). Managing climate change and overcoming poverty: Facing the realities and building a global agreement. Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment.

  97. Stern, N. (2010). Managing climate change and promoting development: Risks, scale and values. Paper presented at the Sir Douglas Robb Lectures, The University of Auckland.

  98. Stockholm Environment Institute, Fundação Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável (FBDS), & UN Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Global Sustainability. (2012). The future we choose: Declaration from the high-level dialogue on global sustainability. United Nations conference on sustainable development. Rio de Janeiro.

  99. Strandenaes, J.-G. (2011). A council for sustainable development: A possible outcome of the Rio + 20 process. Paper presented at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio de janeiro.

  100. United Nations. (1992). United Nations framework convention on climate change. New York: United Nations.

  101. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA). (2006). The international forum for social development: Social justice in an open world-the role of the United Nations (Division for Social Policy and Development, Trans.). New York.

  102. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA). (2010). Objective and themes of the United Nations conference on sustainable development. Report of the Secretary-General.

  103. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA). (2012). Division for sustainable development United Nations conference on sustainable development, Rio + 20. New York. http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/rio20.html. Accessed December 20, 2012.

  104. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). (2010). Human development report 2010The real wealth of nations: Pathways to human development. Human Development Report (20th Anniversary Edition ed.).

  105. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). (2010). The emissions gap report.

  106. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). (2011). Bridging the emissions gap.

  107. United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). (1983). Process of preparation of the environmental perspective to the year 2000 and beyond. United Nations.

  108. United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). (1987). 42/187. Report of the world commission on environment and development. http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/42/ares42-187.htm. Accessed January 10, 2012.

  109. United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). (1989). 44/228. United Nations conference on environment and development. United Nations.

  110. United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). (2005). Resolution adopted by the general assembly: 60/1. 2005 world summit outcome. United Nations.

  111. United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). (2010). Resolution adopted by the general assembly: 64/236. Implementation of agenda 21, the programme for the further implementation of agenda 21 and the outcomes of the world summit on sustainable development. United Nations.

  112. United Nations General Assembly (UNGA). (2012). Resolution adopted by the general assembly on 27 July 2012: 66/288. The future we want. United Nations.

  113. United Nations Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Global Sustainability Background. (2012a). http://www.un.org/gsp/about-us/background. Accessed January 2012.

  114. United Nations Secretary-General’s High-Level Panel on Global Sustainability. (2012b). Resilient people, resilient planet: A future worth choosing, overview. New York.

  115. Upton, S. (1997a). Climate change: Addressing the Real Issues. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/climate-change-addressing-real-issues. Accessed March 1, 2012.

  116. Upton, S. (1997b). Statement on behalf of New Zealand by Hon Simon Upton. http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/statement-behalf-new-zealand-hon-simon-upton. Accessed March 1, 2012.

  117. Wilson, N., Chapman, R., & Howden-Chapman, P. (2011). End-of-term review of the New Zealand Government’s response to climate change: A public health perspective. Journal of the New Zealand Medical Association, 124(1345), 90–95.

    Google Scholar 

  118. WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database. (1998). In C. Fellbaum (Ed.), Cambridge: MIT Press.

  119. World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). (1987). Report of the world commission on environment and development. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

  120. Wright, J. (2011). Emissions trading scheme review. Wellington: Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chris Hadley.

Appendix 1: Primary data sources

Appendix 1: Primary data sources

MfE, & New Zealand Climate Change Programme. (1990). Responding to climate change: a discussion of options for New Zealand. Wellington: New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

MfE. (1991). Climate change: The consensus and the debate. Wellington: New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

MfE. (1996). Discussion Document of the Working Group on CO2 Policy. Climate Change and CO2 Policy – A Durable Response. Wellington: New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

NZ Treasury. (1997). Treasury working paper for the New Zealand Delegation: Proposals in support of the development of a protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. Wellington: New Zealand Treasury.

Upton, S. (1997). Climate Change: Addressing the Real Issues. Speeches Retrieved from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/climate-change-addressing-real-issues

MfE. (1997). Upton Announces Climate Change Position Releases Retrieved from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/upton-announces-climate-change-position

Upton, S. (1997). Statement on Behalf of New Zealand by Hon Simon Upton. Speeches Retrieved from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/statement-behalf-new-zealand-hon-simon-upton

MfE. (2002). National Communication 2001, New Zealand’s Third National Communication under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

MfE. (2002). National Interest Analysis, Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

MfE. (2002). Climate Change II: New Policies Retrieved from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/climate/resources/cabinet-papers/pol-02-72.pdf

Clark, H. (2002). Address to World Summit on Sustainable Development. Speeches Retrieved from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/node/14782

Clark, H. (2002). Kyoto Protocol Signing of Instrument of Ratification. Speeches Retrieved from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/kyoto-protocol-signing-instrument-ratification

Ministry for Culture and Heritage. (2002). PM signs Kyoto Protocol ratification document. Releases Retrieved from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/?q=node/15689

Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. (2003). Sustainable Development for New Zealand: Programme of Action. Wellington: Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet.

Goff, P. (2003). The ethics of foreign policy. Retrieved from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/node/17186 .

MfE. (2003). Ministry for the Environment Statement of Intent 2003 – 2006 Retrieved from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/about/soi/2003/statement-of-intent-03to06.pdf

MfE. (2005). Review of Climate Change Policies. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

Parker, D. (2005). Speech to the United Nations Climate Change Conference. Speeches Retrieved from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/speech-united-nations-climate-change-conference

MfE. (2005). Carbon tax will not go ahead in 2007. Releases Retrieved from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/carbon-tax-will-not-go-ahead-2007

MfE. (2007). A New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme: Key Messages and Strategic Issues Retrieved December, 21, 2011, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/Documents/Files/Cab%20Paper_Emissions%20Trading.PDF

MfE. (2007). New Zealand’s climate change solutions: An overview. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

MfE. (2007). Parker to promote international climate change action. Releases Retrieved January, 10, 2012, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/node/29684

Macey, A. (2007). New Zealand’s Policy on Post-2012 International Climate Change Arrangements. In J. Boston (Ed.), Towards a New Global Climate Treaty - Looking Beyond 2012. Wellington: Institute for Governance and Policy Studies.

Parker, D. (2007). A new approach to addressing deforestation Speeches Retrieved January, 10, 2012, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/new-approach-addressing-deforestation

MfE. (2008). Historic climate change legislation passes. Releases Retrieved January, 15, 2011, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/historic-climate-change-legislation-passes

MfE. (2008). Climate change select committee established Releases Retrieved February, 16, 2012, from http://beehive.govt.nz/release/climate-change-select-committee-established

MfE. (2009). Ministry for the Environment Statement of Intent 2009-2012 Retrieved January, 5, 2012, from http://mfe.govt.nz/publications/about/soi/2009/statement-of-intent-2009-2012.pdf

MfE. (2009). Climate Change: New Zealand’s 2020 Emissions Reduction Target New Zealand’s 2020 Emissions Target Retrieved January, 15, 2012, from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/climate/emissions-target-2020/cab-paper-2020.html

MfE. (2009, 11 August 2009). Statement made by New Zealand Ambassador for Climate Change, Dr Adrian Macey, to the United Nations Climate Change negotiating session on 10 August 2009 in Bonn, Germany New Zealand’s 2020 Emissions Target Retrieved January, 15, 2012, from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/issues/climate/emissions-target-2020/statement-nz-ambassador.html

Groser, T. (2009). Climate Change, trade and agriculture – address to Federated Farmers. Speeches Retrieved January, 15, 2012, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/climate-change-trade-and-agriculture-address-federated-farmers

MfE. (2009). Balanced new law important step on climate change. Releases Retrieved February, 10, 2012, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/balanced-new-law-important-step-climate-change

MfE. (2009). New Zealand’s Fifth National Communication under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

MfE. (2010). Ministry for the Environment Statement of Intent 2010-2013 Retrieved January, 5, 2012, from http://mfe.govt.nz/publications/about/soi/2010/statement-of-intent-2010-2013.pdf

Smith, N. (2010). New Zealand’s National Statement to COP 16: Cancun, Mexico. Speeches Retrieved January, 16, 2012, from http://beehive.govt.nz/speech/new-zealand039s-national-statement-cop-16-cancun-mexico

MfE. (2011). Ministry for the Environment Statement of Intent 2011 – 2014 Retrieved January, 5, 2012, from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/about/soi/2011/soi-2011.pdf

MfE. (2011). Gazetting New Zealand’s 2050 Emissions Target - Minister’s Position Paper. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment (MfE).

MfE. (2011). Govt sets -50 % by 2050 emissions reduction target. Releases Retrieved January, 18, 2012, from http://beehive.govt.nz/release/govt-sets-50-2050-emissions-reduction-target

Emissions Trading Scheme Review Panel (ETS Review Panel). (2011). Doing New Zealand’s Fair Share. Emissions Trading Scheme Review 2011: Final Report. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.

MfE. (2011). Slowing of ETS recommended by Review Panel Releases Retrieved January, 9, 2012, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/slowing-ets-recommended-review-panel

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2011). Groser to attend UN climate change talks. Releases Retrieved January, 20, 2012, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/groser-attend-un-climate-change-talks

Groser, T. (2011). National Statement to COP 17: Durban. Speeches Retrieved January, 25, 2012, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/national-statement-cop-17-durban

MfE. (2011). Durban climate change outcome welcomed. Releases Retrieved January, 20, 2012, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/durban-climate-change-outcome-welcomed

NZ Government. (2011). Submission for the Rio + 20 Process by New Zealand: United Nations.

Adams, A. (2012). Opening address to the Rio + 20 Summit. Speeches Retrieved August, 2, 2012, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/opening-address-rio%2020-summit

MfE. (2012). NZ’s key goals included in Rio + 20 outcome document. Releases Retrieved August, 5, 2012, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/nz%E2%80%99s-key-goals-included-rio%2020-outcome-document

MfE. (2012). Government announces ETS amendments Releases Retrieved August, 10, 2012, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/government-announces-ets-amendments

Bridges, S. (2012). New Zealand National Statement to UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP18). Speeches Retrieved December, 22, 2012, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/speech/new-zealand-national-statement-unfccc-conference-parties-cop18

MfE. (2012). New Zealand Commits to UN Framework Convention. Releases Retrieved December, 22, 2012, from http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/new-zealand-commits-un-framework-convention

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hadley, C. The sustainability of New Zealand climate change policy: an ethical overview. Environ Dev Sustain 17, 477–495 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-014-9555-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Sustainability ethics
  • Sustainable development
  • Climate change ethics
  • Climate change policy
  • Global change
  • Global ethic