Groundwater market and its implications on water resources and agriculture in the southern peri-urban interface, Chennai, India
- 380 Downloads
This paper describes the informal groundwater market existing in the urban–peri-urban interface of Chennai. The private water tanker suppliers and packaged water industries utilize the land and water resources of the peri-urban villages. Thus, the groundwater sources in peri-urban areas play a significant role in meeting the growing urban demand. The villages that are experiencing the groundwater market are highly influenced by the urbanization and its related activities, due to their proximity to the city. The transfer of groundwater from the peri-urban villages not only deprives the peri-urban areas of their water rights but also leads to environmental damage. Agriculture declined in the water marketed villages in the range of 20–95 per cent during 1990–2007. The pre-monsoon and post-monsoon groundwater level fluctuation varied from 2–6 m to 0–5 m, respectively, during 1971–2007. The declining trend of the groundwater table and agriculture is highly significant in the water marketing villages. Moreover, the present groundwater quality is also in a susceptible state due to over extraction. Hence, strengthening the legal and institutional framework to ensure an equitable access to water for both urban and peri-urban areas is urgently required. This paper also describes the characteristics of the groundwater transfer, quantification of the marketed water, the role of the existing regulatory framework, and the institutional mechanisms. Many stakeholder’s meeting and focus group discussions have been conducted in the villages under study for understanding the socio-economic implications of the water market. The study ultimately emphasized a sustainable groundwater extraction/market which will safeguard the interests of the peri-urban and urban communities.
KeywordsGroundwater Peri-urban areas Water Quality Socio-economic implication Groundwater Market
This research was funded and supported by Wagningen University, Netherlands, under the Crossing Boundaries (CB) Project. The authors sincerely thanks the South Asian Integrated Water Resources Management Consortium (saci WATERs), Hyderabad, coordinator of the CB project for providing the necessary support and fellowship to complete the present work.
- Allen, A., Davila, D. J., & Hofmann, P. (2006). The peri-urban water poor: Citizens or consumers? Journal of Environment and Urbanization. doi: 10.1177/0956247806069608.
- APHA (American Public Health Association) (1994). Standard method for examination of water and waste water. NW, DC 20036.Google Scholar
- Arul, C. (2008). Gaps in Irrigation laws of Tamil Nadu, Ph.D., Thesis, Centre for Water Resources, Anna University, Chennai, India.Google Scholar
- BIS (Bureau of Indian Standards) 10500. (1991). Indian standard drinking water specification. First Revision, pp 1–8.Google Scholar
- Butterworth, J., Ducrot, R., Faysse, N., & Janakarajan, S. (2007). Peri-urban water conflicts, supporting dialogue and negotiation, Technical Paper Series 50. Delft, The Netherlands: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre.Google Scholar
- Central Ground Water Board (CGWB). (1996). Development and augmentation of ground water resources in national capital territory of Delhi. New Delhi: CGWB, Ministry of Water Resources.Google Scholar
- Consumer Digest of CAI. (2002). Packaged drinking water, 4th issue, June–July. www.cai-india.org.
- District Groundwater Brochure, Chennai District, Tamil Nadu, Technical Report Series, Central Ground Water Board, Chennai, November 2008.Google Scholar
- Diwakara, H., & Nagaraj, N. (2003). Negative impacts of emerging informal groundwater markets in peninsular India: reduces local food security and unemployment. Journal of Social and Economic Development, 1, 90–105.Google Scholar
- Eater, K. W., Rosegrant, W. M., & Dinar, A. (1999). Formal and informal markets for water: Institution, performance and constraints. The World Bank Research Observer, 14(1), 99–116.Google Scholar
- Frederick, D. K. (1998). Marketing water, the obstacles and the impetus, Summer 1998/issue 132 Resources 7, Resources for the future.Google Scholar
- Janakarajan, S. (2004). A snake in the grass, Unequal power, unequal contracts and unexplained conflicts: Facilitating negotiations over water conflicts in peri urban catchments. In conference on market development of water & waste technologies through environmental economics, Paris.Google Scholar
- Janakarajan, S., Liorente, M., & Zerah, M.-H. (2006). Water conflicts in Indian cities Man made scarcity as a critical factor. Working paper No. 196. Chennai: Madras Institute of Developmental Studies.Google Scholar
- Janakarajan, S., Butterworth, J., Moriarty, P., & Batchelor, C. (2007). Strengthened city, marginalized peri-urban villagers: Stakeholder dialogues for inclusive urbanization in Chennai, India. In J. Butterworth (Ed), ‘Peri-urban water conflicts’ IRC technical working paper 50, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
- Jankarajan S., & Moench M. (2002). Are wells a potential threat to farmers wellbeing? The case of deteriorating groundwater irrigation in Tamil Nadu. Working paper 174, Chennai: Madras Institute of Developmental Studies.Google Scholar
- Menon, S. V. (2007). Groundwater management: Need for sustainable approach. Online at http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/6078. MPRA Paper No. 6078, posted 04 December 2007.
- Misra, B. B., Chaturvedi, G. B., & Tewari, D. D. (2008). Water quality index and suitability of water of Kohargaddi dam at district Balrampur, India. Pollution Research, 27(3), 497–500.Google Scholar
- Nelliyat, P. (2008). Issues related to rural to urban water transfer: Lessons form two cases, Tamil Nadu, India, Case study report. Mumbai: Tata Institute of Social Sciences.Google Scholar
- Packialakshmi S., Ambujam N. K., & Nelliyat, P. (2010). Socio economic implications on the groundwater development in Chennai and its peri-urban interface, South India. In the international conference on India 2010: Third international perspective on current and future state of water resources and environment (EWRI), IIT, Chennai, India.Google Scholar
- Pandey, S. K., & Tiwari, S. (2009). Physico-chemical analysis of groundwater of selected area of Ghazipur city––A case study. Nature and Science, 7(1), 17–20. ISSN 1545-0740.Google Scholar
- Pant, D., Bhattarai, M., & Govinda, B. (May 2008). A case study of the Melamchi water supply project in Nepal, Water management institutions. University of Georgia, CAPRi working paper no. 78.Google Scholar
- Paramesha Naik, D., Ushamalini, & Somashekar., R. K. (2007). Groundwater quality evaluation in stone quarry area. Journal of Industrial Pollution Control, 23(1), 15–18.Google Scholar
- Ramakrishnaiya, C. R., Sadasivaiah, C., & Ranganna, G., (2009). Assessment of Water quality Index for the groundwater in Tumkut taluk, Karnataka State, India. E-Journal of Chemistry, 6(2), 523–530, http://www.ejournals.net.
- Thakkar, H. (1997). Bottled Water: The Genei is out, unpublished, New Delhi.Google Scholar
- Veeralakshmi, V., Ambujam, N. K., & Karanakaran, K. (2009).Need for integrated water resources management for ensuring water security and equity in Chennai Metropolitan Area: Emerging issues. In international conference on interfacing poverty, livelihood and climate change in water resources development: Lessons in South Asia, Nepal.Google Scholar