Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 35–50 | Cite as

Compliance of paper-making plants with regulations on wastewater management in Bac Ninh Province, Vietnam

  • Mau Dung Nguyen


This study investigated the compliance of paper-making plants in Phong Khe Commune of Bac Ninh Province with regulations on wastewater management. According to existing regulations for wastewater management, all paper plants in Bac Ninh province are required to submit an environmental impact assessment report, pay the wastewater charges, and establish a wastewater treatment system. Many paper-making plants in the commune did not, however, comply with these regulations. Although fines were imposed for non-compliance, only a few plants paid the fines due to weak enforcement. As a result, the current costs of compliance of paper-making plants were very small compared with the full costs of compliance. Type of plant, location of the plant, and number of schooling years of the plant owners were found to be significant factors affecting compliance. The main reasons why the plants did not comply with the regulations were the plant owners’ inadequate understanding of environmental regulations, their lack of financial resources, limited space for treatment system installation, small fines, and the limited capacity of the local environment authorities in enforcing the regulations. The option of wastewater treatment for a group of paper-making plants located close to one another was widely accepted. The study proposes collective action for the adoption of this treatment option and policy recommendations.


Paper-making plants Compliance Environmental regulations Wastewater management 



The author would like to express his special thanks to Dr. Herminia A. Francisco—Director of EEPSEA (Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia) for her invaluable supports and suggestions. He would like to thank Dr. Benoit Laplante EEPSEA Resource Person, for his very useful comments on this study. The author is very thankful to Hanoi University of Agriculture—his institutional affiliation, for the encouragements and supports for this study under the TRIG program.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Resources and Environmental Economics, Faculty of Economics and Rural DevelopmentHanoi University of AgricultureHanoiVietnam

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