Environment, Development and Sustainability

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 357–364 | Cite as

Quantitative analysis of toxic halogenated contaminants in Oluyoro stream of Nigeria

  • Adedotun Adebowale
  • Tuan Phan


Analysis of organic contaminants is reported for the Oluyoro stream located in the South-Western Nigeria. Using gas chromatography methods with flame ionization, electron capture and mass spectrometer detectors, alarming levels of organic pollutants including alkanes, alkenes, alcohols and alkyl halides were detected. Remarkably, toxic halogenated organic substances such as 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4′-DDT), 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (4,4′-DDD), beta-benzenehexachloride (beta-BHC), heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde and endrin ketone are found to be at 15,820, 6,176, 1,155, 336, 24 and 13 times, respectively, more than the permitted levels of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA). Furthermore, 4,4′-DDD, a probable human carcinogen, and methoxychlor are detected for the first time when compared to the last report published in 1992. Activities such as high influx of domestic and industrial wastes to the stream have drastically increased the concentrations of these halogenated contaminants. Results presented in this article provide important information for potential future effects of these contaminants on human health and the integrated environment in the region.


Oluyoro stream Gas chromatography Halogenated organic contaminants 4,4′-DDT 4,4′-DDD Endrin 



Authors would like to thank H. L. Adebowale and E. O. Oyedokun of University of Ibadan, Nigeria, for their sample collection and preparation, and ANA-LAB, Kilgore, TX, for GC–MS analysis.


  1. Adekalu, K. O., Osunbitan, J. A., & Ojo, O. E. (2002). Water sources and demand in South Western Nigeria: Implications for water development planners and scientists. Technovation, 22, 799–805.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ballschmiter, K. (2003). Pattern and sources of naturally produced organohalogens in the marine environment: Biogenic formation of organohalogens. Chemosphere, 52, 313–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fakayode, S. O. (2005). Impact assessment of industrial effluent on water quality of the receiving Alaro River in Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Association management, 10, 1–13.Google Scholar
  4. Gibs, J., Najar, B., & Suffet, I. H. (1984). Broad-spectrum analysis of organics in drinking water using macro-reticular resins-a quality assurance evaluation in water chlorination. In R. L. Jolley et al. (Eds.), 5th Chemistry, Environmental Impact and Health Effects Conference (pp. 1099–1114).Google Scholar
  5. Golfinopoulos, S. K., Lekkas, T. D., & Nikolaou, A. D. (2001). Comparison of methods for determination of volatile organic compounds in water. Chemosphere, 45(3), 275–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Lee, M. L., Yang, F. J., & Bartle, K. D. (1984). Open tubular column gas chromatography: Theory and practice (pp. 225–226). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  7. Mabey, W. R., Smith, J. H., & Podoll, R. T., et al. (1981). Aquatic fate process data for organic priority pollutants. EPA-440/4-81-014.Google Scholar
  8. Middleton, N. (1997). The global casino: An introduction to environmental issues (3rd ed., p. 332). London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  9. Nigerian National Bureau for Statistics. (2008). 2006 National population commission of Nigeria’s census.
  10. Nwankwoala, A. U., & Osibanjo, O. (1992). Baseline levels of selected organochlorine pesticide residues in surface waters in Ibadan (Nigeria) by electron capture gas chromatography. The Science of the Total Environment, 119, 179–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Oyegun, R. O. (1983). Water resources in Kwara State (p. 113). Ilorin, Nigeria: M & S Publishing Coy Ltd.Google Scholar
  12. Rezaee, M., Assadi, Y., Milani Hosseini, M. R., Aghaee, E., Ahmadi, F., & Berijani, S. (2006). Determination of organic compounds in water using dispersive liquid–liquid Microextraction. Journal of Chromatography A, 1116(1–2), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Zapf, A., Heyer, R., & Stan, H. J. (1995). Rapid micro liquid–liquid extraction method for trace analysis of organic contaminants in drinking water. Journal of Chromatography A, 694(2), 453–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryTexas Southern UniversityHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations