Advertisement

Social contrasts and land use conflicts in the context of sustainable development and management needs: a case study from an estuarine area at northeastern Brazil

  • Roberto Sassi
  • Rosalve Lucas Marcelino
  • Cristiane Francisca Costa
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper discusses the misuses of estuaries in Northeast of Brazil and the social contrasts there found. The several kinds of impacts promoted by capitalist enterprises in one side and by traditional population, who uses estuary areas at another side, are in complete disagreement with the ethic of sustainable development. Our intention is to demonstrate how these aspects occur in the River Paraíba do Norte estuary, in the State of Paraíba. Observing the conditions of infrastructure besides the multiple ways to handle along with the extension of the estuary, we could recognize 59 focus of conflict between the incorrect use and sustainable mode. Most of the uses concern to traditional artisan fishing, slums and recreational marinas, reflecting the great social contrast between rich and poor people settled in area studied. Ecological and social implications of these conflicting uses are discussed and measures to improve the situation are suggested.

Keywords

Estuarine management Land use conflicts Northeastern Brazil Society–nature relations Traditional communities 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thanks the “Núcleo de Estudo e Pesquisas de Recursos do Mar (NEPREMAR/UFPB)” and the “Programa de Pós-Graduação em Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente (PRODEMA/UFPB)” for laboratorial assistance and funds. We are also grateful to Dr. Breno Machado Grisi and Dr. Krystyna Gerlach-Lyra, from the “Universidade Federal da Paraíba” for reviewing the final English text.

References

  1. Bally, R. (1987). Conservation problems and management options in estuaries: The Bot River estuary, South Africa, as a case-history for management of closed estuaries. Environmental Conservation, 14(1), 45–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barros, H.M., Eskinazi-Leça, E., Paranaguá, M.N. (2000). The disappearing fish: An understanding of sustainability among estuarine fishermen communities of Bragança, PA. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management, 3, 553–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beanlands, G.E. (1983). Land use pressures on coastal estuaries in Atlantic Canada. Coastal Zone Management Journal, 11(1–2), 117–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blanchard, J., Prado, G. (1995). Natural regeneration of Rhizophora mangle in strip clearcuts in North West Ecuador. Biotropica, 27(2), 160–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Braga, R.A.: 1991, Alternativas de uso e produção dos manguezais do Nordeste. CPRH – Companhia Pernambucana de Controle da Poluição Ambiental dos Recursos Hídricos’, Recife. Technical Report 112.Google Scholar
  6. Brasil: 1941, Congresso Nacional. Decreto Federal 3438 de 17 de julho de 1941.Google Scholar
  7. Brasil: 1965, Congresso Nacional. Lei No. 4771 (Código Florestal) de 15 de setembro de 1965.Google Scholar
  8. Brasil: 1967, Congresso Nacional. Lei Federal 5197 de proteção à fauna de 3 de janeiro de 1967.Google Scholar
  9. Cicin-Sain, B., Knecht, R.W. (1998) Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management: Concepts and Practices. Washington: Island Press, p. 517.Google Scholar
  10. Diegues, A.C. (1995). Ecologia Humana e Planejamento em Áreas Costeiras. São Paulo: NUPAUB-USP, p. 190.Google Scholar
  11. EJF (2003). Smash & Grab: Conflict, Corruption and Human Rights Abuses in the Shrimp Farming Industry. London, UK: Environmental Justice Foundation.Google Scholar
  12. French, P.W. (1997). Coastal and Estuarine Management. London and New York: Routledge environmental management series, p. 243.Google Scholar
  13. Grotta, M., Lunetta, J.E.L. (1980). Ciclo sexual de Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) do litoral do Estado da Paraíba. Paraíba Revista Nordestina de Biologia, 3(1): 5–55.Google Scholar
  14. Huitric, M., Folke, C., Kautsky, N. (2002). Development and government policies of the shrimp farming industry in Thailand in relation to mangrove ecosystems. Ecological Economics, 40, 441–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. IBGE: 2004, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Available at <http://www1.ibge.gov.br/home>.Google Scholar
  16. ISA: Industrial Shrimp Action. Prawn to trade prawn to consume. Industrial Shrimp Action Network. Available at <http://www.shrimpaction.com/Reports.html>.Google Scholar
  17. MAP: Mangrove Action Project. Available at < http://www.earthisland.org/map/>.Google Scholar
  18. Melo-Peixoto, J.Á.: 1986, Distribuição e Abundância Sazonal de Siris do Gênero Callinectes (Decapoda, Portunidae) no Estuário do Rio Paraíba do Norte, Paraíba, Brasil. MSc Dissertation, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa.Google Scholar
  19. Moura, G.F.: 1992, Comportamento diurno e sazonal de parâmetros fitoplanctônicos e hidrológicos no Estuário do Rio Paraíba do Norte, Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. MSc Dissertation, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Oceanografia, Recife.Google Scholar
  20. NEP: 2000, National Estuary Program. Available at <http://www.epa.gov/nep/>.Google Scholar
  21. Nishida, A.K.: 1987, Alguns aspectos ecológicos e determinação do índice de condição de Mytella guyanensis (Lamarck, 1819) (Mollusca – Bivalvia) da Ilha da Restinga, estuário do Rio Paraíba do Norte, Paraíba – Brasil. MSc Dissertation, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa.Google Scholar
  22. Páez-Osuna, F., Guerrero-Galván, S.R., Ruiz-Fernández, A.C. (1998). The environmental impact of␣shrimp aquaculture and the coastal pollution in México. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36(1), 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Páez-Osuna, F., Gracia, A., Flores-Verdugo, F., Lyle-Fritch, L.P., Alonso-Rodríguez, R., Roque, A., Ruiz-Fernández, A.C. (2003). Shrimp aquaculture development and the environment in the Gulf of California ecoregion. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 46(7), 806–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reis, E.G., D’incao, F. (2000). The present status of artisan fisheries of extreme Southern Brazil: An effort towards community-based management. Ocean and Coastal Management, 43, 585–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rosa, R.S. (1980). Lista sistemática de peixes marinhos da Paraíba (Brasil). Revista Nordestina de Biologia, 3(2): 205–226.Google Scholar
  26. Sassi, R., Melo, G.N. (1982). Contribuição ao conhecimento da fauna de protozoários do estuário do Rio Paraíba do Norte: Tintinoíneos do Rio Mandacaru. Revista Nordestina de Biologia, 5(2): 141–155.Google Scholar
  27. Sassi, R. (1991). Phytoplankton and environmental factors in the Paraíba do Norte river estuary, northeastern Brazil: Composition, distribution and quantitative remarks. Boletim do Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo, 39(2), 93–115.Google Scholar
  28. Singarajah, K.V. (1978). Hydrographic conditions, composition and distribution of plankton in relation to potential resources of Paraíba do Norte River estuary. Revista Nordestina de Biologia, 1(1), 125–144.Google Scholar
  29. Stergiou, K.I. (2002). Overfishing, tropicalization of fish stocks, uncertainty and ecosystem management: Resharpening Ockham’s razor. Fisheries Research, 55, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tagliani, P.R.A., Landazuri, H., Reis, E.G., Tagliani, C.R., Asmus, M.L., Sánchez-Arcilla, A. (2003). Integrated coastal zone management in the Patos Lagoon estuary: Perspectives in context of developing country. Ocean and Coastal Management, 46, 807–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thomas, T. (1994). A Ecologia do Absurdo. Lisboa: Edições Dinossauro, p. 115.Google Scholar
  32. Valencia, M.J. 1979, South China Sea: Present and potential coastal area resource use conflicts. Oceans and Coastal Management, 5(1), 1–38.Google Scholar
  33. Valiela, I., Bowen J.L. (2002). Nitrogen sources to watersheds and estuaries: Role of land cover mosaics and losses within watersheds. Environmental Pollution, 118, 239–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yarg-Shi-Lun, Chen-Jin-Yu (1995). Coastal salt marshes and mangrove swamps in China. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 13(4), 318–324.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Sassi
    • 1
  • Rosalve Lucas Marcelino
    • 2
  • Cristiane Francisca Costa
    • 3
  1. 1.Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB)/CCEN/DSE/PRODEMA/NEPREMAR, Cidade UniversitáriaJoão Pessoa, ParaíbaBrazil
  2. 2.Departamento de GeografiaUniversidade Estadual do Sudoeste da BahiaBahiaBrazil
  3. 3.UFPB/Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas (Zoologia)Cidade UniversitáriaJoão Pessoa, ParaíbaBrazil

Personalised recommendations