Design of River Water Quality Monitoring Networks: A Case Study
Karoon River, from Gotvand Dam to Persian Gulf with more than 450 km in length and an annual discharge of 11,891 million cubic meters, is the largest river in Iran. Increasing water withdrawal from and wastewater discharge to the river has endangered the aquatic life of this important ecosystem. Furthermore, the drinking and in-stream water quality standards have been violated in many instances. In this paper, a river water quality monitoring network is designed, including determination of sampling frequencies as well as location of water quality monitoring stations. In this regard, two models are developed. The first model is a Genetic Algorithm-based optimization model and the second one is a combination of Kriging method and Analytical Hierarchy Process. The temporal variation of the concentration of water quality variables along Karoon and Dez Rivers are evaluated and the main water quality indicators are selected. Then, thirty five stations are selected and the application of Entropy Theory in calculating the sampling frequency is demonstrated. The results show the significant value of the proposed methodology in the design of monitoring network.
KeywordsWater pollution Water quality monitoring Genetic Algorithm Kriging Analytical Hierarchy Process Entropy Theory
This study was partially supported through a research contract with the World Bank and Department of Environment of Iran entitled: “Design of Karoon Water Quality Monitoring System and Bid Evaluation Assistance”. Parts of this paper were presented at the 2006 ASCE-EWRI congress. The contribution of Mr. Mojtaba Karimi is hereby acknowledged.
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