Municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWWTPs) are considered to reduce the amount of pollutants that enter water reservoirs as a result of wastewater disposal. An assessment of the occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical compounds, mainly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), in wastewater from the Kavoor MWWTP (southwest monsoon region), India, is presented in this paper. The performance of the MWWTP was monitored in the summer (May) and monsoon (September) periods. The highest inlet concentrations of diclofenac, naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid in the wastewater were observed in May and were 721.37, 2132.48, 2109.875, 2747.29, and 2213.36 μg/L, respectively. The ketoprofen content was found to be higher than that of other NSAIDs in the influent in both seasons, whereas the diclofenac content was found to be the lowest. The removal efficiency (RE) of the target NSAIDs in the Kavoor secondary treatment plant varied from 81.82–98.92% during the summer season. During the monsoon season, the influent NSAID concentration level dropped, probably because of infiltration in old sewer pipes. In addition, a 100% RE was achieved for all the target NSAIDs in the wastewater of the MWWTP. The results showed that secondary treatment plants have the potential to remove NSAID compounds from municipal sewage with consistent performance. The environmental hazards caused by the accumulation of such compounds in water reservoirs are due to open discharge. The environmental risk levels of these compounds were also studied by the environmental risk assessment (ERA) using the European Agency for Evaluation of Medicines approach.
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Thalla, A.K., Vannarath, A.S. Occurrence and environmental risks of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in urban wastewater in the southwest monsoon region of India. Environ Monit Assess 192, 193 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8161-1
- Municipal wastewater treatment plant
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
- Southwest monsoon region
- Removal efficiency
- Environmental risk assessment