Determining the effects of land use on soil erodibility in the Mediterranean highland regions of Turkey: a case study of the Korsulu stream watershed

Abstract

Sustainable soil management can be concisely defined as using soil without impairing soil function. It has become crucial due to soil degradation, especially that caused by soil erosion, throughout the world. In this context, this study aimed to determine the erodibility and some soil properties to evaluate the actual state of soil resources in a watershed located in the Mediterranean highland of Turkey. A total of 180, 90 disturbed and 90 undisturbed, soil samples were collected from different land-use types, namely, forest, pasture, and agriculture. Erodibility and soil properties such as texture, soil organic matter, permeability, particle density, bulk density, porosity, pH, electrical conductivity, field capacity, permanent wilting point, and water holding capacity were determined. A soil erodibility map was also produced using ArcGIS software. According to the results, the average soil organic matter was 6.27%, 4.56%, and 2.05% in forest, pasture, and agriculture, respectively, and the differences among land-use types were significantly different. The average erodibility (USLE-K) value was 0.09 for forest, while it was 0.12 and 0.22 for pasture and agriculture, respectively. The difference between agriculture and forest and pasture was statistically significant, while no statistically significant difference was found between forest and pasture in the study area. Forest was included in the slightly erodible class, while pasture and agriculture were included in the moderately and highly erodible classes, respectively. The erodibility map also revealed that a major part of the study area is susceptible to erosion. The study clearly showed that sustainable soil management is a necessity, especially for agricultural lands.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. Allen, J. (1985). Soil response to forest clearing in the United States and in the tropics: geological and biological factors. Biotropica, 11, 15–27.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Balci, A. N. (1973). Effects of parent material and aspect on soil properties associated with erodibility in the Central Anotolia Region. İstanbul: Bozak Publishing [In Turkish].

    Google Scholar 

  3. Bangroo, S. A., Najar, G. R., & Rasool, A. (2017). Effect of altitude and aspect on soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks in the Himalayan Mawer Forest Range. Catena, 158, 63–68.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Barthès, B., & Roose, E. (2002). Aggregate stability as an indicator of soil susceptibility to runoff and erosion : validation at several levels. Catena, 47, 133–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(01)00180-1.ird-01224950.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bayramin, I., Basaran, M., Erpul, G., & Canga, M. R. (2008). Assessing the effects of land use changes on soil sensitivity to erosion in a highland ecosystem of semi-arid Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 140, 249–265.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Biro, K., Pradhan, B., Buchroithner, M.F., & Makeschin, F. (2011). An assessment of land use/land-cover change impacts on soil properties in the northern part of Gadarif region, Sudan. Land Degrad Dev (article on-line first available). doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.1116.

  7. Blanco, H., & Lal, R. (2008). Principles of soil conservation and management . © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8709-7.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bouyoucos, G. J. (1936). Direction for making mechanical analysis of soils by the hydrometer method. Soil Science, 42(S), 225–229.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., et al. (2015). The interdisciplinary nature of soil. Soil, 1(1), 117–129 ISSN 2199-3971.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bridges, E. M., & Oldeman, L. R. (1999). Global assessment of human- induced soil degradation. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, 13(4), 319–325. https://doi.org/10.1080/089030699263212.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bromley, P. (1995). The effect of elevation gain on soil. Environmental Studies, 102.

  12. Celik, I. (2005). Land-use effects on organic matter and physical properties of soil in a southern Mediterranean highland of Turkey. Soil and Tillage Research, 83, 270–277.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Comerford, N. B., Franzluebbers, A. J., Stromberger, M. E., Morris, L., Markewitz, D., & Moore, R. (2013). Assessment and evaluation of soil ecosystem services. Soil Horizons, 54, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.2136/sh12-10-0028.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Dominati, E., Patterson, M., & Mackay, A. (2010). A framework for classifying and quantifying the natural capital and ecosystem services of soils. Ecological Economics, 69(9), 1858–1868.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Ebabu, K., Tsunekawa, A., Haregeweyn, N., Adgo, E., Meshesha, D. T., Aklog, D., Masunaga, T., Tsubo, M., Sultan, D., Fenta, A. A., & Yibeltal, M. (2019). Effects of land use and sustainable land management practices on runoff and soil loss in the Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia. Science of the Total Environment, 648, 1462–1475.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. ELD Initiative (2015). The value of land: prosperous lands and positive rewards through sustainable land management. Available from www.eld-initiative.org.

  17. Emadi, M., Baghernejad, M., & Reza, H. M. (2009). Effect of land-use change on soil fertility characteristics within water-stable aggregates of two cultivated soils in northern Iran. Land Use Policy, 26, 452–457.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. FAO (2017). Voluntary guidelines for sustainable soil management Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, Italy.

    Google Scholar 

  19. FAO and ITPS. (2015). Status of the World’s soil resources (SWSR) – main report. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils. Italy: Rome.

    Google Scholar 

  20. FAO, (2015a). Revised world soil charter. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00153 Rome, Italy.

  21. FAO (2015b). Understanding Mountain Soils: a contribution from mountain areas to the International Year of Soils 2015, by Romeo, R., Vita, A., Manuelli, S., Zanini, E., Freppaz, M. & Stanchi, S. Rome, Italy.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Gajić, B. (2013). Physical properties and organic matter of Fluvisols under forest, grassland, and 100 years of conventional tillage. Geoderma, 200–201, 114–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. GDMS (2018). General directorate of meteorological service.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Gol, C. (2002). Relations between land use types and some soil properties in Eldivan Region, Cankiri. Doctoral Thesis. Ankara: Institute of Science and Technology, Ankara University [In Turkish].

    Google Scholar 

  25. Gomiero, T. (2016). Soil degradation, land scarcity and food security: reviewing a complex challenge. Sustainability, 8(3), 281. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8030281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Gue’rif, J., Richard, G., Dürr, C., Machet, J. M., Recous, S., & Roger-Estrade, J. (2001). A review of tillage effects on crop residue management, seedbed conditions and seedling establishment. Soil and Tillage Research, 61, 13–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Gulcur, F. (1974). Physical and chemical analyzing methods of soil. Istanbul University, Faculty of Forestry Publication Number: 201. İstanbul [In Turkish].

  28. Haghighi, F., Gorji, M., & Shorafa, M. (2010). A study of the effects of land use changes on soil physical properties and organic matter. Land Degradation & Development, 21, 496–502.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Hajabbasi, M. A., Jalalian, A., & Karimzadeh, H. R. (1997). Deforestation effects on soil physical and chemical properties, Lordegan, Iran. Plant and Soil, 190, 301–308.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Hammad, A. H. A., Borresen, T., & Haugen, L. E. (2006). Effect of rain characteristics and terracing on runoff and erosion under the Mediterranean. Soil and Tillage Research, 87, 39–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Helming, K., Daedlow, K., Hansjürgens, B., & Koellner, T. (2018). Assessment and governance of sustainable soil management. Sustainability, 10, 4432.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Jeloudar, F. T., Sepanlou, M. G., & Emadi, S. M. (2018). Impact of land use change on soil erodibility. Global J. Environ. Sci. Manage, 4(1), 59–70, Winter. https://doi.org/10.22034/gjesm.2018.04.01.006.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Kadioglu, M., Unal, Y., Ilhan, A. & Yuruk, C. (2017). Türkiye’de iklim değişikliği ve tarimda sürdürülebilirlik raporu.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Kadlec, V., Holubik, O., Prochazkova, E., Urbanova, J., & Tippl, M. (2012). Soil organic carbon dynamics and its influence on the soil erodibility factor. Soil Water Res, 7(3), 97–108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Kar, G., Chattaraj, S., & Kumar, A. (2013). Pedo-transfer functions for determining soil water retention and assessing their utility in simulation model for predicting rice growth and yield. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 61(4), 300–310.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Karagül, R. (1994). Surveying some of the features and erosion tendency of soils under different land use conditions in Trabzon-Söğütlüdere Basin. Dissertation Thesis. Trabzon: Karadeniz Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology [In Turkish].

    Google Scholar 

  37. Karagül, R. (1999). Trabzon-Söğütlüdere havzasinda farkli arazi kullanim şekilleri altindaki topraklarin bazi özellikleri ve erozyon eğilimlerinin araştirilmasi. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 23, 53–68 [In Turkish].

    Google Scholar 

  38. Karlen, D. L., & Rice, C. W. (2015). Soil degradation: will humankind ever learn? Sustainability, 7, 12490–12501.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Kassa, H., Dondeyne, S., Poesen, J., Frankl, A., & Nyssen, J. (2017). Impact of deforestation on soil fertility, soil carbon and nitrogen stocks: the case of the Gacheb catchment in the White Nile Basin, Ethiopia. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 247, 273–282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Kinnell, P. (2010). Event soil loss, runoff and the Universal Soil Loss Equation family of models: a review. Journal of Hydrology, 385, 384–397.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Korkanc, S. Y., Ozyuvaci, N., & Hizal, A. (2008). Impacts of land use conversion on soil properties and soil erodibility. Journal of Environmental Biology, 29, 363–370.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Kulikov, M., Schickhoff, U., Gröngröft, A., & Borchardt, P. (2017). Modelling soil erodibility in mountain rangelands of South-Western Kyrgyzstan. Pedosphere. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(17)60402-8.

  43. Lal, R. (1995). Erosion-crop productivity relationships for soils of Africa. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 59(3), 661–667.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Magdoff, F., & Weil, R. R. (2004). Soil organic matter in sustainable agriculture (Vol. 59). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Lawrence, W. M. (1992). The variation of soil erodibility with slope position in a cultivated Canadian prairie landscape. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 17, 543–556.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Morel, J. L., Chenu, C., & Lorenz, K. (2015). Ecosystem services provided by soils of urban, industrial, traffic, mining, and military areas (SUITMAs). Journal of Soils and Sediments, 15, 1659–1666. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-014-0926-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Ostovari, Y., Ghorbani-Dashtaki, S., Bahrami, H. A., et al. (2016). Modification of the USLE K-factor for soil erodibility assessment on calcareous soils in Iran. Geomorphology, 273, 385–395.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Özalp, M., Erdoğan Yüksel, E., & Yıldırımer, S. (2017). Subdividing large mountainous watersheds into smaller hydrological units to predict soil loss and sediment yield using the GeoWEPP model. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 26(5), 2135–2146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Ozalp, M., Erdoğan Yüksel, E., & Yuksek, T. (2016). Soil property changes after conversion from forest to pasture in Mount Sacinka, Artvin, Turkey. Land Degradation and Development, 27, 1007–1017.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Öztan, Y. (1980). Studying differences in erodibility values of forest and rangeland soils on various aspects in Meryemana Stream watershed. Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry Journal, 3–1, 74–104.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Ozyuvacı, N. (1975). Topraklarda erozyon eğiliminin tahmini açısından yapılan bazı değerlendirmeler. Tübitak V. Bilim Kongresi, Tarım Ve Ormancılık Araştırma Grubu Tebliğleri Ormancılık Seksiyonu, 29 Eylül-2 Ekim, İzmir, S.123-134 [In Turkish].

  52. Ozyuvacı, N. (1976). Some plant–soil–water relationships affecting hydrological status of Arnavutköy Stream Watershed. Istanbul University Faculty of Forestry Press, İstanbul. Publication Number: 221.

  53. Ozyuvacı, N. (1978). Changes in soil erodibility depending on hydrological soil properties in soils of Kocaeli Peninsula. Istanbul University Faculty of Forestry Press, İstanbul. Publication Number: 233.

  54. Panagos, P., Meusburger, K., Ballabio, C., et al. (2014). Soil erodibility in Europe: a high-resolution dataset based on LUCAS. The Science of the Total Environment, 189200.

  55. Panagos, P., Standardi, P. G., Borrelli, E., et al. (2018). Cost of agricultural productivity loss due to soil erosion in the european union: from direct cost evaluation approaches to the use of macroeconomic models. Land Degradation & Development, 29(3), 471–484. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2879.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Panthi, J. (2010). Altitudinal variation of soil fertility: a case study from Langtang National Park. M.Sc thesis. Nepal: Central Department of Environmental Science Tribhuvan University Kathmandu.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Pereira, P., & Martinez-Murillo, J. F. (2018). Editorial overview: sustainable soil management and land restoration. Current Opinion in Environmental Science & Health, 5, 98–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Pereira, P., Bogunovic, I., Muñoz-Rojas, M., & Brevik, E. C. (2018). Soil ecosystem services, sustainability, valuation and management. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sci. Health, 5, 7–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Pimentel, D. (2006). Soil erosion: a food and environmental threat. Environment, Development and Sustatinability, 8, 119–137.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Prichett, W. L., & Fisher, R. F. (1987). Properties and management of forest soils (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Reicosky, D.C. ( 2005). Alternatives to mitigate the greenhouse effect: emission control by carbon sequestration. In: Simpósio sobre Plantio direto e Meio ambiente; Sequ¨estro de carbono equalidade da agua, pp. 20-28.. Anais. Foz do Iguaçu, 18–20 de Maio.

  62. Reis, M., Aladag, I. A., Bolat, N., & Dutal, H. (2017). Using Geoweep model to determine sediment yield and runoff in the Keklik watershed in Kahramanmaras Turkey. Sumar. List, 141, 563–569.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Renard, K. G., Foster, G. R., Weesies, G. A., & Porter, P. J. (1991). RUSLE—revised universal soil loss equation. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 1991, 30–33.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Renschler, C. S., Mannaerts, C., & Diekkrüger, B. (1999). Evaluating spatial and temporal variability in soil erosion risk-rainfall erosivity and soil loss ratios in Andalusia, Spain. Catena, 34, 209–225.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Richards, L. A. (1941). A pressure membrane extraction apparatus for soil suction. Soil Science, 51, 377–386.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Saeed, S., Barozai, M. Y., Ahmad, A., & Shah, S. H. (2014). Impact of altitude on soil physical and chemical properties in Sra Ghurgai (Takatu mountain range) Quetta, Balochistan. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 5(3).

  67. Tan, K.H. (1994). Environmental soil science, New York, USA, Marcel Dekker Inc., 304. ISBN : 0824791983.

  68. Tóth, G., Hermann, T., da Silva, M. R., & Montanarella, L. (2018). Monitoring soil for sustainable development and land degradation neutrality. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190, 57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6415-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Turkes, M., Sumer, U.M. & Cetiner, G. (2000). ‘Küresel iklim değişikliği ve olası etkileri’, Çevre Bakanlığı, Birleşmiş Milletler İklim Değişikliği Çerçeve Sözleşmesi Seminer Notları, 7–24, ÇKÖK Gn. Md., Ankara.

  70. Vaezi, A. R., Hasanzadeh, H., & Cerdà, A. (2016). Developing an erodibility triangle for soil textures in semi-arid regions, NW Iran. Catena, 142, 221–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2016.03.015.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Walkley, A., & Black, I. A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareft method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37, 29–38.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Wischmeier, W.H., & Smith, D.D. (1978). Predicting rainfall Erosion losses–a guide to conservation planning (US Department of Agriculture, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC) Agricultural Handbook 537.

  73. Worku, G., Bantider, A., & Temesgen, H. (2014). Effects of land use/land cover change on some soil physical and chemical properties in Ameleke micro-watershed Gedeo and Borena Zones, South Ethiopia. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 4, 13–24.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Yilmaz, M., Yilmaz, F., Karagul, R., & Altun, L. (2008). Changes in erodibility indices and some soil properties according to parent materials and land use regimes in Erfelek Dam Creek watershed (Sinop, Turkey). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 17(12a), 2083–2090.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Yüksel, A., Akay, A. E., Gundogan, R., Reis, M., & Cetiner, M. (2008). Application of GeoWEPP for determining sediment yield and runoff in the Orcan Creek watershed in Kahramanmaras, Turkey. Sensors, 8, 1222–1236.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Yüksel, E. E., Özalp, M., & Yıldırımer, S. (2016). Using a geospatial interface (Geowepp) to predict soil loss, runoff and sediment yield of Kokolet Creek watershed. International Journal of Ecosystems and Ecology Sciences (IJEES), 6(3), 437–442.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Zhang, M., He, Z., Zhao, A., & Schomberg, H. (2011). Water-extractable soil organic carbon and nitrogen affected by tillage and manure application. Soil Science, 176(6), 307–312.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Zhaoyong, Z., Abuduwaili, J., & Yimit, H. (2014). The occurrence, sources and spatial characteristics of soil salt and assessment of soil salinization risk in Yanqi Basin, Northwest China. PLoS One, 9(9), e106079. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106079.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This study was funded by the Department of Scientific Resource Project, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hurem Dutal.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Dutal, H., Reis, M. Determining the effects of land use on soil erodibility in the Mediterranean highland regions of Turkey: a case study of the Korsulu stream watershed. Environ Monit Assess 192, 192 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8155-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Soil degradation
  • Soil erosion
  • Erodibility
  • Sustainable soil management
  • Land use
  • Soil organic matter