Interactive effects of mixtures of pesticides on bacteria are rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the cumulative, synergistic, and antagonistic effects of four widely used agricultural pesticides including deltamethrin, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, and Bacillus bacteria. The reduction of alamar blue, as an indicator of bacterial activity, was measured using a spectrophotometer at 600-nm wavelength. Data were analyzed using SPSS 24.0 software. The binary mixtures of pesticides had mainly antagonistic and additive effects, but quadruple mixtures of pesticides had synergistic effects on all of the three bacterial species. In the mixtures of pesticides, increasing the number of compounds leads to more synergistic effects.
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This paper was extracted from Atefeh Fakhraei Fard’s M.Sc. thesis supported by the Research Vice-chancellor of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (proposal No. 11165). This research was financially supported by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (proposal No. 95-01-04-11951).
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Zare, M.R., Dehghani, M. & Fakhraei Fard, A. Investigating the relationship between synergistic effects and diversity of four widely used agricultural pesticides by using bacterial species in liquid culture medium. Environ Monit Assess 192, 176 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-8125-5
- Agricultural pesticides
- Alamar blue