Advertisement

Impact of artificial lagoons on seawater quality: evidence from 7 years of physicochemical seawater monitoring

  • Mohammed Rasheed
  • Riyad Manasrah
  • Khalid Al-Trabeen
  • L. Kellie Dixon
Article
  • 99 Downloads

Abstract

Seven years (2010–2016) of data on the basic physicochemical properties of seawater, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), nutrients, chlorophyll a (Chl a), and hydrocarbons from two lagoons were used to evaluate the impact of the anthropogenic activities inside the lagoon on the water quality and to explore the relationship of any impact from the lagoons’ design. Statistical analysis shows the modification in water quality inside the lagoon compared to the ambient seawater is particularly evident for nitrate, silicate, and Chl a. The modification is attributed to the extensive boat activities in the lagoons and the limited water exchange between the lagoons and ambient seawater. However, the impact to both lagoons is generally limited to inside the lagoons. The oligotrophic state of the two lagoons was evaluated and it was found that the most marked code violations were found in DIN inside both lagoons. In order to explore the design importance, the water exchange and overall water quality was compared between the two lagoons. This study highlights the importance of an environmental design study before the construction of any lagoon project. Proper design would maintain acceptable water quality inside the lagoons, critical for environmental health and supporting continued recreational activities.

Keywords

Lagoon Seawater quality Monitoring Nutrients 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the University of Jordan and Marine Science Station in Aqaba for their help and support. This work was analyzed and written during a Sabbatical Fellow from the University of Jordan to Mohammed Rasheed to be spent at the Mote Marine Laboratory in Florida, USA. Fulbright scholarship was also awarded to Mohammed Rasheed during this period.

References

  1. Abu Hilal, A., Rasheed, M., Al, H., & Al- Rousan, S. (2009). Characteristics and potential environmental impacts of sand material from sand dunes and uplifted marine terraces as potential borrow sites for beach nourishment along the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 13, 274–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Horani, F. A., Al-Rousan, S. A., Al-Zibdeh, M., & Khalaf, M. A. (2006). Status of coral reefs in the Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Zoology of the Middle East, 38, 99–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Momani, R., & Rasheed, M. (2016). Treated wastewater uses in irrigation conserve water in the world’s second water-poorest country, Jordan. Fresenius Environment bulletin, 25(6), 2225–2231.Google Scholar
  4. Al-Rousan, S., Almohgrabi, S., Patzold, J., & Wefer, G. (2002). Environmental and biological effects of on the stable oxygen isotope records of corals in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 239, 301–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Rousan, S., Rasheed, M., Khalaf, M., & and Badran, M. (2005). Ecological and geochemical characteristics of bottom habitats at the northern Jordanian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba. Chemistry and Ecology, 21, 227–239.Google Scholar
  6. Arar, E J., & Collins, G. B. (1992). In vitro determination of chlorophyll-a and pheophytin-a in marine and freshwater phytoplankton by fluorescence, environmental monitoring and support laboratory. U.S. EPA 1992.Google Scholar
  7. Badran, M. (2001). Dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a and nutrient seasonal cycles in waters of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Aquatic Ecosystem and Health Management, 4, 139–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Badran, M. I., & Zibdah, M. K. (2005). Quality standard codes of reference of Jordanian coastal waters of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Chemistry and Ecology, 21(5), 337–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Badran, M., Rasheed, M., Manasrah, R., & Al Najjar, T. (2005). Nutrient flux, fuel of the summer primary productivity in the oligotrophic waters of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Oceanologia, 47, 47–60.Google Scholar
  10. Badran, M., Manasrah, R., & Rasheed, M. (2006). Sea-water seasonal changes at a heavy tourism investment site on the Jordanian northern coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Chemistry and Ecology, 22, 425 435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bell, P. R. (1992). Eutrophication and coral reefs—some examples in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Water Research, 26, 553–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bell, P. R., & Elmetri, I. (1995). Ecological indicators of large-scale eutrophication in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Ambio, 24, 208–215.Google Scholar
  13. Bricker, S. B., Clement C. G., Pirhalla, D. E., Orlando, S. P., & Farrow, D. R. (1999). National estuarine eutrophication assessment. In: Effects of nutrient enrichment in the nation’s estuaries. NOAA, National Ocean Service, Special Projects Office and the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science. Silver Spring, MD: 71 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Chiffings, T. (2003). Marine Region 11: Arabian Seas. A global representative system of marine protected areas.Google Scholar
  15. Dar, M. A., & Mohamad, A. W. (2003). Long-term impacts of the unplanned development in Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Research, 5, 43–59.Google Scholar
  16. Environment Australia (2000). Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality. Volume 1: The guidelines. National Water Quality Management Strategy. Australian and New Zealand Environmental and Conservation Council, Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand.Google Scholar
  17. Frihy, O. E., El Ganaini, M. A., El Sayed, W. R., & Iskander, M. M. (2004). The role of fringing coral reef in beach protection of Hurghada, Gulf of Suez, Red Sea of Egypt. Ecological Engineering, 22, 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ginsburg, R. N., (compiler) (1994). Proceedings of the colloquium on global aspects of coral reefs: health, hazards and history, (1993). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 420 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Grasshoff, K., Ehrhardt, M., & Kremling, K. (1999). Methods of seawater analysis (3rd ed.). Weinheim: Verlag Wiley-VCH 600 pp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khalaf, M. A., & Abdallah, M. (2014). Spatial distribution of fifty ornamental fish species on coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. Zoo Keys, 367, 33–64.Google Scholar
  21. Kirugara, D., Cederlof, U., & Rydberg, L. (1998). Wave induced net circulation in a fringed reef lagoon-Bamburi, Kenya. Ambio, 27, 752–757.Google Scholar
  22. Klinker, J., & Resiss, Z. (1978). Nutrients and biomass distribution in the Gulf of Aqaba, (Elat) Red Sea. Marine Biology, 45, 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lapointe, B. (1992). Eutrophication thresholds for macroalgal overgrowth of coral reefs. In K. Thacker (Ed.), Protecting Jamaica’s coral reefs: water quality issues (pp. 105–112). Negril: Negril Coral Reef Preservation Society.Google Scholar
  24. Lapointe B. E., Littler M. M., & Littler D. S. (1993). Modification of benthic community structure by natural eutrophication: the Belize barrier reef. Proceedings of the Seventh International Coral Reef Symposium, Guam, University of Guam Press: Mangilao; vol. 1; 323–334.Google Scholar
  25. Lenton, T. M., & Watson, A. J. (2000). Redfield revisited. 1. Regulation of nitrate, phosphate, and oxygen in the ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14, 225–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Levanon Spanier, I., Padan, E., & Reiss, Z. (1979). Primary production in a desert-enclosed sea- the Gulf of Elat (Aqaba), Red Sea. Deep-Sea Research, 26, 673–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Manasrah, R., Rasheed, M., & Badran, M. (2006). Relationship between water temperature, nutrients and dissolved oxygen in the northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Oceanologia, 48, 237–253.Google Scholar
  28. Mangor, K. (2004). Shoreline management guidelines. Hørshølm: DHI Water & Environment.Google Scholar
  29. Miller, J. M., Pietrafesa, L. J., & Smith, N. P. (1990). Principles of hydraulic management of coastal lagoons for aquaculture and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, No. 314, Rome, FAO, 88p.Google Scholar
  30. Montaggioni, L. F., Cuet, P., & Naim, O. (1993). Effect of nutrient excess on a modern coral fringing reef (Reunion Island, Western Indian Ocean). Geological implications. In: Global aspects of coral reefs: health, hazards and history, p. N27-N33.Google Scholar
  31. Pandaa, U. S., Mahantyb, M. M., Ranga Raoa, V., Patraa, S., & Mishraa, P. (2015). Hydrodynamics and water quality in Chilika Lagoon-A modelling approach. Procedia Engineering, 116, 639–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rasheed, M., Badran, M. I., Richter, C., & Huettel, M. (2002). Effect of reef framework and bottom sediment on nutrient enrichment in a coral reef of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 239, 277–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rasheed, M., Badran, M. I., & Huettel, M. (2003). Particulate matter filtration and seasonal nutrient dynamics in permeable carbonate and silicate sands of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Coral Reefs, 22, 167–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rasheed, M., Al-Rousan, S., Manasrah, R., & Al-Horani, F. (2006). Nutrient fluxes from deep sediment support nutrient budget in the oligotrophic waters of the Gulf of Aqaba. Journal of Oceanography, 62, 83–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rasheed, M., Al Hihi, E., Al- Rousan, S., & Abu-Hilal, A. (2009). Chemical evaluation of sand material sources for beach replenishment along the coast of the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Chemistry and Ecology, 25, 371–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rasheed, M., Al-Trabeen, K., & Badran, M. (2012). Long-term water quality monitoring at an industrial site on the Nothern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea. Mediterranean Marine Science, 13, 250–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Richter, C., & Abu-Hilal, A. (2006). Seas of the Arabian Region. Chapter 34. In: The sea: the global coastal ocean, interdisciplinary regional studies and synthesis. Volume 14 Part B. Edited by Allan R. Robinson and Kenneth H. Brink. P 1373–1412. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  38. Richter, C., Wunsch, M., Rasheed, M., Kotter, I., & Badran, M. I. (2001). Endoscopic exploration of Red Sea coral reefs reveals dense populations of cavity-dwelling sponges. Nature, 413, 726–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Speijers, G. J., van Went, G. F. van Apeldoorn, M., Montizaan, G. F., Janus, J. A., Canton, J. H., & van Gesteland C. A. et al. (1987). Integrated criteria document nitrate effects, appendix to report nr.758473007, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, December 1987, Bilthoven, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  40. Strickland, J. D. H. & Parsons, T. R. (1972). A practical handbook of seawater analyses. 2nd ed. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, No. 167. Ottawa, Fisheries Research Board of Canada.Google Scholar
  41. Thompson, R. M. & Ryder, G. R. (2003). Waituna Lagoon: summary of existing knowledge and identification of knowledge gaps. Science for Conservation 215. Wellington: Department of Conservation.Google Scholar
  42. Tyrrell, T. (1999). The relative influences of nitrogen and phosphorus on oceanic primary production. Nature, 400, 525–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. UNDP (2015). State of the coastal environment, Report for Aqaba, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, ASEZA, Aqaba, Jordan.Google Scholar
  44. World Bank (1993). Gulf of Aqaba environmental action plan. Jordan. Report No. 12244JO.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chemistry DepartmentThe University of JordanAmmanJordan
  2. 2.Mote Marine LaboratorySarasotaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Coastal EnvironmentThe University of Jordan-Aqaba BranchAqabaJordan
  4. 4.Marine Science StationThe University of Jordan and Yarmouk UniversityIrbidJordan

Personalised recommendations