The occurrences of heavy metals in farmland soils and their propagation into paddy plants
In this research, heavy metal accumulation pattern was investigated using the data measured from the soil, paddy plants, and irrigation water samples in Jessore district in Bangladesh with the aid of principal component analysis. A total of 28 samples representing farmland soil and irrigation water along with paddy plant were collected from 28 locations in the Jessore district in November 2016. In agricultural soil, arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) were found 2.78 and 1.11 times more concentrated than their background values. In addition, 89% of the sample sites exhibited enhanced As concentrations relative to the background value. Principal component analysis (PCA) of soil data showed strong homogeneity in many species (e.g., Ni, Cu, Fe, and As) to reflect intense agricultural activities. In contrast, Pb showed no such homogeneity in soil accumulation pattern. In plant samples, Cu, Fe, and As were strongly correlated and homologous. This homology of pollution was in agreement with the pollution homology in the agricultural soil in which the plants were grown. In irrigation water, Cu and Ni were homologous. Observation of spatial distribution and other variables indicated that the accumulation of any particular metal in paddy plants was correlated with its content in soil and irrigation water, which was influenced by the soil organic matter, soil/water pH, and other metals present in that environment.
KeywordsArsenic PCA (principal component analysis) Heavy metals Spatial distribution Statistical modeling
This study was partly supported by the R&D Project of Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Bangladesh, and Jessore University of Science and Technology (JUST), Bangladesh. We are thankful to the GIS Laboratory, CSIRL, JUST, Bangladesh, and the Department of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, JUST, Bangladesh.
Md. Shahedur Rahman and Polsh Kumar Biswas conducted the laboratory work. Md. Shahedur Rahman, Syed Mahfuz Al Hasan, and Md. Mahfuzur Rahman performed the data analysis and manuscript preparation. S Lee, KH Kim, Shaikh Mizanur Rahman, and Md. Rezuanul Islam designed and supervised the work. All of the authors were involved in the explication of data and approved the final manuscript.
The corresponding author (KHK) acknowledges support made in part by grants from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (No. 2016R1E1A1A01940995).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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