Effect of elevated temperature on soil hydrothermal regimes and growth of wheat crop

  • P. Pramanik
  • Bidisha Chakrabarti
  • Arti Bhatia
  • S. D. Singh
  • A. Maity
  • P. Aggarwal
  • P. Krishnan


An attempt has been made to study the effect of elevated temperature on soil hydrothermal regimes and winter wheat growth under simulated warming in temperature gradient tunnel (TGT). Results showed that bulk density (BDs) of 0, 0.9, and 2.5 °C were significantly different whereas BDs of 2.8 and 3.5 °C were not significantly different. Water filled pore space (WFPS) was maximum at 3.5 °C temperature rise and varied between 43.80 and 98.55%. Soil surface temperature (ST) at different dates of sowing increased with rise in sensor temperature and highest ST was observed at S5 sensors (3.5 °C temperature rise). Temperature and its difference were high for the top soil, and were stable for the deep soil. Photosynthesis rate (μmol CO2 m−2 s−1) of wheat was lower at higher temperature in different growth stages of wheat. In wheat, stomatal conductance declined from 0.67 to 0.44 mol m−2 s−1 with temperature rise. Stomatal conductance decreased with increase in soil temperature and gravimetric soil moisture content (SWC). In TGT, 0 °C temperature rise showed highest root weight density (RWD) (5.95 mg cm−3); whereas, 2.8 and 3.5 °C showed lowest RWD (4.90 mg cm−3). Harvest index was maximum (0.37) with 0 °C temperature rise, and it decreased with increase in temperature, which indicated that both grain and shoot biomass decreased with increase in temperature. Intensive studies are needed to quantify the soil hydrothermal regimes inside TGT along with the crop growth parameters.


Soil temperature Hydrothermal regimes Soil moisture content Photosynthetic rate Stomatal conductance Root weight density 



The authors acknowledge Indian Council Agricultural Research-Indian Agricultural Research Institute for providing the fund and research facilities for conducting the experiment. Facilities for the research work was partially funded by National Innovation in Climate Resilient Agriculture, ICAR.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Pramanik
    • 1
  • Bidisha Chakrabarti
    • 2
  • Arti Bhatia
    • 2
  • S. D. Singh
    • 2
  • A. Maity
    • 3
  • P. Aggarwal
    • 1
  • P. Krishnan
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Agricultural PhysicsICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient AgricultureICAR-Indian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Division of Seed TechnologyICAR-Indian Grassland and Fodder Research InstituteJhansiIndia

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