Seasonal variations of PCDD/Fs in fishes: inferring a hidden exposure route from Na-PCP application for schistosomiasis control
- 82 Downloads
Japanese schistosomiasis was endemic in Dongting Lake, the second largest freshwater lake in China. The technical sodium pentachlorophenate (Na-PCP) was widely used during the period between the early 1960s and early 1990s to kill oncomelania, the intermediate host of Schistosomes. However, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) also contaminated the environment of Dongting Lake due to trace impurities of Na-PCP. In this study, 13 species of freshwater fish were collected from Dongting Lake and analyzed in wet and dry seasons. Temporal (wet and dry season) variations in PCDD/Fs in fishes from Dongting Lake were observed. The concentration of PCDD/Fs was considerably higher in the wet season than in the dry season and in areas in China where Na-PCP was not applied. The higher level of PCDD/Fs in the wet season may be attributed to the use of Na-PCP in the past and to the increase in the migration of PCDD/Fs from sediments to water in the wet season. The results indicate that the risk of PCDD/Fs contamination is connected with prior consumption of fishes that live in the Na-PCP application area. However, there was no difference in the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) between the wet and dry seasons.
KeywordsSeason variations Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins Polychlorinated dibenzofurans Fishes Sodium pentachlorophenate Japanese schistosomiasis
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30771812 and 81172675).
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Bao, Z. C., Wang, K. O., Kang, J. X., & Zhao, L. W. (1995). Analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in pentachlorophenol and sodium pentachlorophenate. Environmental Chemistry, 14(4), 317–321.Google Scholar
- Damstra, T., Barlow, S., Bergman, A., Kavlock, R., & Van Der Kraak, G. (eds.) (2002). International programme on chemical safety global assessment: the state-of-the-science of endocrine disruptors. Geneva: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/new_issues/endocrine_disruptors/en/. Accessed 15 Jan 2018.
- Guo, Y., Tang, H., Meng, X., Mai, B., & Zeng, E. (2007). Tissue distribution of PBDEs in mandarin fish. Huan Jing Ke Xue, 28(12), 2806–2810.Google Scholar
- Holmes, M., Hart, A., Smith, G. C., Rose, M., Macarthur, R., & White, S. (2003). Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs including measurement uncertainty and limits of detection. Organohalog Compound, 60, 103–106.Google Scholar
- Liao, F., He, W., Huang, X., Jing, Q., & He, X. (2002). Studies on present situation and change trend of Dongting Lake fishery resources and environment. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 26(6), 623–627.Google Scholar
- Liu, B., Zhang, L. S., Zhang, J. Q., Jiang, Y. S., Zhou, J., & Huang, H. Y. (2011). Investigation on levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail fish and egg products in Shenzhen. Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, 45(12), 1068–1072.Google Scholar
- Stapleton, H. M., Brazil, B., Holbrook, R. D., Mitchelmore, C. L., Benedict, R., Konstantinov, A., & Potter, D. (2006). In vivo and in vitro debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) by juvenile rainbow trout and common carp. Environmental Science & Technology, 40(15), 4653–4658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- U., E. (2006). Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in food stuffs. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/ 2006 (Vol. 364). http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32006R1881&rid=2. Accessed 25 May 2017.
- UNEP CHEMICALS (2002). PCB transformers and capacitors: from management to reclassification and disposal. United Nation Environmental Programme. http://www.nttworldwide.com/docs/uneppcb.pdf. Accessed 25 May 2017.
- Wu, J. P., Luo, X. J., Zhang, Y., Luo, Y., Chen, S. J., Mai, B. X., & Yang, Z. Y. (2008). Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in wild aquatic species from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China. Environment International, 34(8), 1109–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yang, F., Zhang, Q., Xu, Y., Jiang, G., Wang, Y., & Wang, D. (2008). Preliminary hazard assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans to Yangtze finless porpoise in Dongting Lake, China. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 27(4), 991–996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhou, J., Huang, C. Y., He, Y. K., Du, Y. Q., Yu, X. L., Wang, Y. Y., & Li, Y. S. (2010). Epidemiological evaluation of schistosomiasis in migrant fishermen in Dongting Lake region. Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control, 22(5), 464–467.Google Scholar