Normal boundary intersection applied as multivariate and multiobjective optimization in the treatment of amoxicillin synthetic solution

  • Deberton Moura
  • Vithor Barcelos
  • Gisella Rossana Lamas Samanamud
  • Alexandre Boscaro França
  • Renata Lofrano
  • Carla Cristina Almeida Loures
  • Luzia Lima Rezende Naves
  • Mateus Souza Amaral
  • Fabiano Luiz Naves


Amoxicillin is a useful antibiotic to combat bacterial infections. However, this drug can cause serious problems when discarded in waterways due to its great bioaccumulation potential. This compound can be treated via advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), which are capable of converting amoxicillin into carbon dioxide and water. In this context, the use of ozone as an oxidizer has excelled in amoxicillin degradation. This paper aims at treating a synthetic solution of amoxicillin (0.1 g L−1) in a reactor with ozone bubbling. A Design of Experiment (DoE) with a response surface known as Central Composite Design (CCD) was used to optimize the treatment process. In addition, a Normal Boundary Intersection (NBI) method was used in the construction of a Pareto boundary chart. Results after 1-h treatment showed a reduction of 53% of the initial organic matter from a designed model using factors, such as pH, ozone generator power, and O3 flow. A model was built from the CCD with score of 0.9929. Thus, the model was able to represent the real scenario with confidence.


Advanced oxidation process Drugs Ozonation Pareto frontier 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deberton Moura
    • 1
  • Vithor Barcelos
    • 1
  • Gisella Rossana Lamas Samanamud
    • 2
  • Alexandre Boscaro França
    • 1
  • Renata Lofrano
    • 1
  • Carla Cristina Almeida Loures
    • 3
  • Luzia Lima Rezende Naves
    • 4
  • Mateus Souza Amaral
    • 5
  • Fabiano Luiz Naves
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering and Statistics DepartmentFederal University of São João Del ReiSão João Del ReiBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Texas at San Antonio, UTSASan AntonioUSA
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical Engineering (DEPMC)Federal Center for Technological EducationAngra dos ReisBrazil
  4. 4.University Center of Lavras, UNILAVRASLavrasBrazil
  5. 5.Departamento de Chemical EngineeringRoseira CollegeRoseiraBrazil

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