Productivity of waterbirds in potentially impacted areas of Louisiana in 2011 following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

Article

Abstract

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010) could have affected the behavior and productivity of birds nesting along the Gulf of Mexico. This research examined the productivity of several species of colonial waterbirds in 2011 in LA colonies that were classified according to the M252 peak SCAT shoreline map oiling designations (as of April 6 2011) within 2 km of each colony. Colonies were classified as no oil, little oil, or medium to heavy oil. Because of the uneven distribution of oil and variation in bird composition within colonies, not all species occurred in each of the three oiling classes in the LA colonies studied. I tested the following hypotheses: (1) there were no interspecific differences in nesting phenology, (2) there were no differences in the number of species per colony as a function of oiling, and (3) there were no differences in reproductive measures as a function of oiling. Nesting phenology differed among species, with brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), great egrets (Ardea alba), and tri-colored herons (Egretta tricolor) nesting earlier than the other species. There were no significant differences in the number of species nesting in colonies as a function of oiling category. Along LA’s shoreline, nests in colonies with a “no oil” category within 2 km of the colony had similar or lower maximum number of chicks/nest, than those from birds in colonies designated as light or moderate/heavy oiling. Average maximum chick sizes in nests in colonies designated as no oil were either similar to or smaller than chicks in nests in colonies designated as either category of oiled. The data suggest that in the year following the oil spill, there were no differences in reproductive success. Although long-term studies are essential to determine effects on population dynamics, the continued exposure of birds nesting along the Gulf of Mexico to acute and chronic oil sources make this a nearly impossible task.

Keywords

Colonial birds Reproductive success Temporal patterns Oiling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Sampling protocols were developed by Cardno ENTRIX (the late Patti Reilly) and reviewed by me. Field assistance was provided by Patti Reilly, Jeff Wakefield, Brian Reilly, Lynn Noel, and Amy Hansen, and analysis assistance and graphics were aided by Taryn Pittfield and Christian Jeitner. I express appreciation to all state and federal agencies, landowners for permission to work in these colonies, and to the many research assistants who participated in the study.

References

  1. American Ornithologist’s Union (AOU). (1998). Check-list of North American birds: the species of birds of North American from the Arctic through Panama, including the West Indies and Hawaiian Islands (7th ed.). Washington: D.C. American Ornithologists’ Union.Google Scholar
  2. Atlas, R., & Hazen, T. C. (2011). Oil biodegradation and bioremediation: a tale of the two worst spills in U.S. history. Environmental Science and Technology, 45(16), 6709–6715.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es2013227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baelum, J., Borglin, S., Chakraborly, R., Fortney, J. L., Lamendella, R., Mason, O. U., et al. (2012). Deep-sea bacteria enriched by oil and dispersant from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Environmental Microbiology, 14(9), 2405–2416.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-2920.2012.02780x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barron, M. G. (2012). Ecological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: implications for immunotoxicity. Toxicology and Pathology, 40(2), 315–320.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0192623311428474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brock, J. C., Barras, J. A., & Williams, S. J. (2013). Introduction to the special issue on “Understanding and predicting change in the coastal ecosystems of the northern Gulf of Mexico”. Journal of Coastal Research, 63, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brooks, G. L., Sanders, F., Gerard, P. D., & Jodice, P. G. (2014). Daily survival rate of black skimmers from a core breeding area of the southeastern USA. Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 126(3), 443–450.  https://doi.org/10.1676/13-136.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burger, J. (1994). Before and after an oil spill: the Arthur Kill. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Burger, J. (1997a). Oil spills. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Burger, J. (1997b). Effects of oiling on feeding behavior of sanderlings (Calidris alba) and semipalmated plovers (Charadrius semipalmatus) in New Jersey. Condor, 99(2), 290–298.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1369935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burger, J. (2006). Bioindicators: types, development, and used in ecological assessment and research. Environmental Bioindicators, 1(1), 22–39.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15555270590966483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burger, J. (2018). Birdlife of the Gulf of Mexico. Corpus Christi: Texas A & M Press.Google Scholar
  12. Burger, J., & Gochfeld, M. (1990). The black skimmer: social dynamics of a colonial species. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Burger, J., & Gochfeld, M. (2001). Effects of chemicals and pollution on seabirds. In E. A. Schreiber & J. Burger (Eds.), Biology of marine birds (pp. 485–526). Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  14. Burger, J., & Gochfeld, M. (2015). Laughing gull in birds of North America no. 225:1-28. Ithaca: Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology.Google Scholar
  15. Burger, J., & Gochfeld, M. (2016). Habitat, population dynamics, and metal levels in colonial waterbirds: a food chain approach. Boca Raton: CRC Press.  https://doi.org/10.1201/b20219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burger, J., & Tsipoura, N. (1998). Experimental oiling of sanderlings (Calidris alba): behavior and weight changes. Environmental Toxicology Chemistry, 17(6), 1154–1158.  https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620170623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burke, C. M., Montevecchi, W. A., & Wiesss, F. K. (2012). Inadequate environmental monitoring around offshore oil and gas platforms on the Grand Bank of Eastern Canada: are risks to marine birds known? Journal of Environmental Management, 104, 121–126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.02.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carey, M. J. (2009). The effects of investigator disturbance on procellariiform seabirds: a review. New England Journal of Zoology, 36, 367–377.Google Scholar
  19. Carney, K. M., & Sydeman, W. J. (1999). A review of human disturbance effects on nesting colonial waterbirds. Waterbirds, 22(1), 68–79.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1521995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carney, K. M., & Sydeman, W. J. (2000). Response: disturbance, habituation, and management of waterbirds. Waterbirds, 23, 333–334.Google Scholar
  21. Chapman, B. R. (1981). Effects of the Ixtoc I oil spill Texas shorebird populations. Proceedings of the 1981 Oil Spill Conference. Washington, D.C: American Petroleum Institute.Google Scholar
  22. Chapman, B. R. (1984). Seasonal abundance and habitat-use patterns of coastal bird populations on Padre and Mustang Island barrier beaches. Following the Ixtoc 1 Oil Spill. Contract No. 14-16-0009-80-062. Washington, D.C.: US Fish and Wildlife Service FWS/OBS-83/31.Google Scholar
  23. Couvillion, B.R., Barras, J.A., Steyer, G.D., Sleavin, W., Fischer, M., Beck, H., Trahan, N., Griffin, B., & Heckman, D. (2011). Land area change in coastal Louisiana from 1932 to 2010. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3164. Scale 1:265,000, 12 p.Google Scholar
  24. Dunnet, G. M. (1982). Oil pollution and seabird populations. Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society. London B, 297, 413–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Energy Resources Co., Inc (ERCO). (1982). Ixtoc oil spill assessment. Final report—executive summary. Report prepared for the Bureau of Land Management, AA851-CTO-71. Cambridge, MA, 39 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Erwin, R. M., Haig, J. G., Stotts, D. B., & Hatfield, J. S. (1996). Reproductive success, growth and survival of black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egret (Egretta thula) chicks in coastal Virginia. Auk, 113(1), 119–130.  https://doi.org/10.2307/4088940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. FDA (Food & Drug Administration). (2011). Questions and answers. https://www.Food/RecallsOutbreaksEmergencies/Emergencies/ucm221563.htm.
  28. Finch, B. E., Wooten, K. J., & Smith, P. M. (2011). Embryotoxicity of weathered crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30(8), 1885–1891.  https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fodrie, F. J., Able, K. W., Galvez, F., Heck Jr., K. L., Jensen, O. P., Lopez-Duarte, P. C., Martin, C. W., Turner, R. E., & Whitehead, A. (2014). Integrating organismal and population responses of estuarine fishes in Macondo spill research. Bioscience, 64(9), 778–788.  https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biu123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Follett, L., Genschel, U., & Hofmann, H. (2014). A graphical exploration of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Comparative Statistics, 29, 121–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fowler, S. W. (1990). Critical review of selected heavy element and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in the marine environment. Marine Environmental Research, 29(1), 1–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-1136(90)90027-L.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Franci, C. D., Guillemette, M., Pelletier, E., Chastel, O., Bonnefoi, S., & Verreault, J. (2014). Endocrine status of a migratory bird potentially exposed to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a case study of northern gannets breeding on Bonaventure Island, Eastern Canada. Science of the Total Environment, 473, 110–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fraser, G. S., Russell, J., & Von Zharen, W. M. (2006). Produced water from offshore oil and gas installations on the Grand Banks, Newfoundland and Labrador: are the potential effects to seabirds sufficiently known? Marine Ornithology, 34, 147–156.Google Scholar
  34. Gochfeld, M. (1980). Mechanism and adaptive value of reproductive synchrony in colonial seabirds. In J. Burger, B. L. Olla, & H. E. Winn (Eds.), Marine birds (pp. 207–270). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  35. Gohlke, J. M., Doke, D., Tipre, M., Leader, M., & Fitzgerald, T. (2011). A review of seafood safety after the Deepwater Horizon blowout. Environmental Health Perspective., 119(8), 1062–1069.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1103507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gordon, C. A., Cristol, D. A., & Beck, R. A. (2000). Low reproductive success of Black Skimmers associated with low food availability. Waterbirds, 23(3), 468–474.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1522184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gulf of Mexico Research Iniative (GoMRI). (2013). Improving society’s ability to understand, respond to, and mitigate the impacts from oil spills. Biloxi: Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative.Google Scholar
  38. Hammerschmidt, C. R., & Fitzgerald, W. F. (2006). Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of methylmercury in Long Island Sound. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology., 51(3), 416–424.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-005-0265-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hammerschmidt, C. R., Fitzgerald, W. F., Lamborg, C. H., Balcom, P. H., & Tseng, C. M. (2006). Biogeochemical cycling of methylmercury in lakes and tundra watersheds of Arctic Alaska. Environmental, Science and Technology, 40(4), 1204–1211.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es051322b.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Haney, J. C., Geiger, H. J., & Short, J. W. (2014a). Bird mortality from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. I. Exposure probability in the offshore Gulf of Mexico. Marine Ecology and Progression Series, 513, 225–237.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Haney, J. C., Geiger, H. J., & Short, J. W. (2014b). Bird mortality from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. II. Carcass sampling and exposure probability in the coastal Gulf of Mexico. Marine Ecology and Progression Series, 513, 239–252.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Henkel, J. R., Sigel, B. J., & Taylor, C. M. (2012). Large-scale impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: can local disturbance affect distant ecosystems through migratory shorebirds. Bioscience, 62(7), 676–685.  https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.7.10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Henkel, J.R., Sigel, B.J. & Taylorm, C.M. (2014). Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on shorebird communities in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. 2014 Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill & Ecosystem Science Conference. January 26–29, 2014. Mobile, AL.Google Scholar
  44. Hunt, G. L. (1987). Offshore oil development and seabirds: the present status of knowledge and long-term research needs. In D. F. Boesch & N. N. Rabalais (Eds.), Long-term environmental effects of offshore oil and gas development (pp. 539–586). London: Elsevier Applied Science.Google Scholar
  45. Incardona, J. P., Gardner, L. D., Linbo, T. L., Brown, T. L., Esbaugh, A. J., Mager, E. M., Stieglitz, J. D., French, B. L., Labenia, J. S., Laetz, C. A., Tagal, M., Sloan, C. A., Elizur, A., Benetti, D. D., Grosell, M., Block, B. A., & Scholz, N. L. (2014). Deepwater Horizon crude oil impacts the developing hearts of large predatory pelagic fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. USA, 111(15), E1510–E1518.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1320950111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lance, B. K., Irons, D. B., Kendall, S. J., & McDonald, L. L. (2001). An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound. Alaska Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42, 289–309.Google Scholar
  47. Laursen, K., Frikke, J., & Kahlert, J. (2008). Accuracy of “total counts” of waterbirds from aircraft in coastal waters. Wildlife Biology, 14(2), 165–175. https://doi.org/10.2981/0909-6396(2008)14[165:AOTCOW]2.0.CO;2.Google Scholar
  48. Li, X., Liu, L., Wang, Y., Luo, G., Chen, X., Yang, X., Gao, B., & He, X. (2012). Integrated assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediments from a coastal industrial basin, NE China. PLOS, 7(6), e39690.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Macko, S. A., & King, S. M. (1980). Weathered oil: effect on hatchability of Heron and Gull eggs. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 25(1), 316–320.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01985531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mason, O. U., & Hazen, T. C. (2011). New insights into microbial responses to oil spills from the Deepwater Horizon incident. SIM News, 61, 60–64.Google Scholar
  51. McCauley, C. A., & Harrel, R. C. (1981). Effects of oil spill cleanup techniques on a salt marsh. Proceedings, 1981 Oil Spill Conference. Washington DC: American Petroleum Institute.Google Scholar
  52. McNutt, M. K., Camilli, R., Crone, T. J., Guthrie, G. D., Hsieh, P. A., Ryerson, T. B., Savas, O., & Shaffer, F. (2012). Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(50), 20260–20267.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1112139108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mendelssohn, I. A., Andersen, G. L., Baltz, D. M., Caffey, R. H., Carman, K. R., Fleeger, J. W., Joye, S. B., Lin, Q., Maltby, E., Overton, E. B., & Rozas, L. R. (2012). Oil impacts on coastal wetlands: implications for the Mississippi River Delta ecosystem after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Bioscience, 62(6), 562–574.  https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2012.62.6.7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Michel, A., Owens, E. J., Xengel, S., Graham, A., Nixon, Z., Allard, T., Holton, W., Reimer, P. D., Lamarche, A., White, N., Rutherford, J., Hilds, C., Mauseth, G., Challenger, G., & Taylor, E. (2013). Extent and degree of shoreline oiling: Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico, USA. PLOS, 8(6), e65087.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0065087.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Miller, D. S., Peakall, D. B., & Kinter, W. B. (1978). Ingestion of crude oil: sublethal effects in Herring Gulls. Science, 199(4326), 315–317.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.145655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Montevecchi, W., Fifield, D., Burke, C., Garthe, S., Hedd, A., Rail, J.-F., & Robertson, G. (2012a). Tracking long-distance migration to assess marine pollution impacts. Biology Letters, 8(2), 218–221.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2011.0880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Montevecchi, W. A., Hedd, A., Tranquilla, L. M., Fifield, D. A., Burke, C. M., Regular, P. M., Davoren, G. K., Garthe, S., Robertson, C. J., & Phillips, R. A. (2012b). Tracking seabirds to identify ecologically important and high risk marine areas in the western North Atlantic. Biological Conservation, 156, 62–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.12.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). (2011). The Gulf of Mexico at a glance: a second glance. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.Google Scholar
  59. National Research Council (NRC) (2013). An ecoservices services approach to assessing the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Washington DC. http://dels.nas.edu/resources/static-assets/materials-based-on-reports-/reports-in-brief/Ecosystem-Services-Reoirt-Brief-Final,pdf.
  60. Natter, M., Keevan, J., Wang, Y., Keimowitz, A. R., Okeke, B. C., Son, A., & Lee, M.-K. (2012). Level and degradation of Deepwater Horizon spilled oil in coastal marsh sediments and pore water. Environmental Science and Technology, 46, 574–5755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Newman, S. H., Anderson, D. W., Ziccardi, M. H., Trupkiewicz, J. G., Tseng, F. S., Christopher, M. M., & Zinkl, J. G. (2000). An experimental soft-release of oil-spill rehabilitated American coots (Fulica americana): II. Effects on health and blood parameters. Environmental Pollution, 107(3), 295–304.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(99)00171-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nisbet, I. C. T., Tseng, F. S., & Apanius, V. (2013). Decreased hematocrits in common terns (Sterna hirundo) exposed to oil: distinguishing oil effects from natural variation. Waterbirds, 36(2), 121–152.  https://doi.org/10.1675/063.036.0202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nygard, T., Lie, E., Roy, N., & Steinnes, E. (2001). Metal dynamics in an Antarctic food chain. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 42(7), 598–602.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(00)00206-X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. O’Hara, P. D., & Morandin, L. A. (2010). Effects of sheens associated with offshore oil and gas development on the feather microstructure of pelagic shorebirds. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(5), 672–678.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.12.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Olin, J. A., Bergeon Burns, C. M., Woltmann, S., Taylor, S. S., Stouffer, P. C., Bam, W., Hooper-Bui, L., & Turner, R. E. (2017). Seaside Sparrows reveal contrasting food web responses to large-scale stressors in coastal Louisiana saltmarshes. Ecosphere, 8(7), e01878.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.1878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Owen, T. M., & Pierce, A. R. (2013). Hatching success and nest site characteristics of black skimmer (Rynchops niger) on the Isles Dernieres Barrier Island Refuge, Louisiana. Waterbirds, 36(3), 342–347.  https://doi.org/10.1675/063.036.0311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Palasceanu-Lovejoy, M., Kranenburg, C., Barras, J. A., & Brock, J. C. (2013). Land loss due to recent hurricanes in coastal Louisiana, U.S.A. Journal of Coastal Research, 63, 97–109.  https://doi.org/10.2112/SI63-009.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Parsons, K. C., & McColpin, A. C. (1995). Great blue heron reproductive success in upper Delaware Bay. Journal of Field Ornithology, 66, 184–191.Google Scholar
  69. Paruk, J. D., Adams, E. M., Uher-Koch, H., Kovach, K. A., Long, D., Perkins, C., et al. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in blood related to lower body mass in common loons. Science of the Total Environment, 565, 360–368.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Payne, J. R., Driskell, W. B., Short, J. W., & Larsen, M. L. (2008). Long term monitoring for oil in the Exxon Valdez spill region. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 56(12), 2067–2081.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.07.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Peterson, C. H., Rice, S. D., Short, J. W., Esler, D., Bodkin, J. L., Ballachery, B. E., & Irons, D. B. (2003). Long-term ecosystem response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Science, 302(5653), 2082–2086.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1084282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Piatt, J.F., Carter, H.R. & Nettleship, D.N. (1990). Effects of oil pollution on marine bird populations: research, rehabilitation, and general concerns. Proceedings: The Oil Symposium, 16–18 October 1990. Sheridan Press, Virginia, 210 pp.Google Scholar
  73. Post, W. (1990). Nest survival in a large ibis-heron colony during a three-year decline to extinction. Colonial Waterbirds, 13(1), 50–61.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1521420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pratt, H. M., & Winkler, D. W. (1985). Clutch size, timing of laying, and reproductive success in a colony of great blue herons and great egrets. Auk, 102(1), 49–63.  https://doi.org/10.2307/4086822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Purrington, D., Muth, D., Wallace, P., Myers, M., Cardiff, S., Newfield, N. & DeMay, R. (2008). Seasonal abundance of birds of southeast Louisiana. Barataria-Terrebone National Estuary Program Report No. 32, Thiboodaux, Louisiana. 93 pp.Google Scholar
  76. Schleifstein M. (2013). At BP oil spill trial, Justice Department witnesses bolster larger spill number Greater New Orleans Times-Picayne NOLA.COM Oct 8, 2013: http://www.nola.com/news/gulf-oil-spill/index.ssf/2013/10/at_bp_oil_spill_trial_justice.html. Accessed 20 Dec 2014.
  77. Scott, W. T., Carloss, M. R., Hess, T. J., Athrey, G., & Leberg, P. L. (2013). Movement patterns and population structure of the brown pelican. Condor, 115, 788–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Siegel, S. (1956). Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences (p. 312). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  79. Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) (2005). Statistical user’s guide. Cary, NC.Google Scholar
  80. Steinkamp, M., Peterjohn, B., Byrd, V., Carter, H. & Lowe, R. (2003). Breeding seasonal survey techniques for seabirds and colonial waterbirds throughout North America. Unpub. Final Report. http://www.scscb.org/working_groups/resources/steinkamp-survey-techniques.pdf. Accessed 3 August 2014.
  81. Tran, T., Yazdanparast, A., & Suess, E. A. (2014). Effect of oil spill on birds: a graphical assay of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill’s impact on birds. Computer Statistics, 29(1-2), 133–140.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00180-013-0472-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Trivelpiece, W. Z., Butler, R. G., Miller, D. S., & Peakall, D. B. (1984). Reduced survival of chicks of oil-dosed adult Leach’s Storm Petrels. Condor, 86(1), 81–82.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1367353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. United States Energy Information Administration (USEIA)(2015). U.S. Gulf of Mexico shareo f global active offshore rigs declines since 2000. https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=23032. Accessed 15 January 2017.
  84. Webb, E., Bushkin-Bedient, H., Cheng, A., Kassotis, C. D., Balise, V., & Nagel, S. C. (2014). Developmental and reproductive effects of chemicals associated with unconventional oil and natural gas operations. Reviews in Environmental Health, 29, 307–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. White, D. H., Mitchell, C. A., & Gromartie, E. (1982). Nesting ecology of Roseate Spoonbills at Nueces Bay, Texas. Auk, 99, 272–284.Google Scholar
  86. Wiens, J. A., Crist, T. O., Day, R. H., Murphy, S. M., & Hayward, G. D. (1996). Effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on marine bird communities in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Ecological Applications, 6(3), 828–841.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2269488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Williams, S. J. (2013). Sea-level rise implications or coastal regions. Journal of Coastal Research, 63, 184–196.  https://doi.org/10.2112/SI63-015.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Life Sciences and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences InstituteRutgers UniversityPiscatawayUSA

Personalised recommendations