A study on the levels of a polybrominated biphenyl in Chinese human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011
- 172 Downloads
The levels of a 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) were measured in human milk samples collected in 2007 and 2011 from residents in China by high-resolution gas chromatography–high-resolution mass chromatography (HRGC–HRMS) with isotope dilution. The median concentrations of BB-153 from the samples collected in 2007 and 2011 were 8.3 and 7.2 pg/g lipid weight, respectively. The levels of BB-153 in the human milk collected from rural areas were not significantly different to those collected from the urban areas in China. Meanwhile, significant positive correlations were found between the levels of BB-153 in human milk and the consumption of animal-origin foods. In the present study, the mean levels of BB-153 in human milk from Chinese mothers were found to be lower than those from European and American mothers.
KeywordsHexabromobiphenyl BB-153 Human milk Brominated flame retardants
We would like to express our gratitude to all the volunteers in this study. This research was supported by the National Nature Science of Foundation of China (Grant No. 21407033 and No. 21361140359) and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB01020300) and Hubei Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention funded project (Y2013W07).
- Boer, J. D., Boer, K. D., & Boon, J. P. (2000). Polybrominated biphenyls and diphenylethers. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
- Dunckel, A. E. (1975). An updating on the polybrominated biphenyl disaster in Michigan. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc., 167, 838–841.Google Scholar
- Focant, J.-F., Sjödin, A., Turner, W. E., & Patterson, D. G. (2004). Measurement of selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides in human serum and milk using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography isotope dilution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 76(21), 6313–6320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IARC (1987). Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC monographs. Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (pp. 321): http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/suppl7/suppl7.pdf.
- Konoplev, A. V., Volkova, E. F., Kochetkov, A. I., Pervunina, R. I., & Samsonov, D. P. (2012). Monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in the ambient air as an element of implementation of the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 6(5), 652–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lenters, V., Thomsen, C., Smit, L. A. M., Bo, A. G. J., Pedersen, H. S., Ludwicki, J. K., et al. (2013). Serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and a polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) in men from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Environment International, 61(4), 8–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nollet, L. M. (2011). Analysis of endocrine disrupting compounds in food. Wiley.Google Scholar
- Pratt, I., Anderson, W., Crowley, D., Daly, S., Evans, R., Fernandes, A., et al. (2013). Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food? Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A(ahead-of-print), 1–11.Google Scholar
- Salgado-Petinal, C., Llompart, M., García-Jares, C., García-Chao, M., & Cela, R. (2006). Simple approach for the determination of brominated flame retardants in environmental solid samples based on solvent extraction and solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, 1124(1), 139–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sjödin, A., Jones, R. S., Focant, J.-F., Lapeza, C., Wang, R. Y., & McGahee, E. E. (2004a). Retrospective time-trend study of polybrominated diphenyl ether and polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyl levels in human serum from the United States. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112(6), 654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sjödin, A., Jones, R. S., Lapeza, C. R., Focant, J.-F., McGahee, E. E., & Patterson, D. G. (2004b). Semiautomated high-throughput extraction and cleanup method for the measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated biphenyls, and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum. Analytical Chemistry, 76(7), 1921–1927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sjödin, A., Wong, L.-Y., Jones, R. S., Park, A., Zhang, Y., Hodge, C., et al. (2008). Serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) in the United States population: 2003–2004. Environmental Science & Technology, 42(4), 1377–1384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vetter, W., Recke, R. V. D., Symons, R., & Pyecroft, S. (2008). Determination of polybrominated biphenyls in Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) by gas chromatography coupled to electron capture negative ion tandem mass spectrometry or electron ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 22(24), 4165–4170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- WHO (1994). Environmental health criteria 152. Polybrominated biphenyls. International Program on Chemical Safety, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland; 1994. http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc152.htm.
- Xu, W., Xian, W., & Cai, Z. (2013). Analytical chemistry of the persistent organic pollutants identified in the Stockholm Convention: a review. Analytica Chimica Acta, 790(15), 1–13.Google Scholar
- Yang, Q., Qiu, X., Li, R., Liu, S., Li, K., & Wang, F., et al. (2013). Exposure to typical persistent organic pollutants from an electronic waste recycling site in northern china. Chemosphere, 91(2), 205–11.Google Scholar
- Yun, S. H., Addink, R., McCabe, J. M., Ostaszewski, A., Mackenzie-Taylor, D., Taylor, A. B., et al. (2008). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyls in sediment and floodplain soils of the Saginaw River watershed, Michigan, USA. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 55(1), 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhi-Xiong, S., Yong-Ning, W., Jing-Guang, L., Yun-Feng, Z., & Jin-Fang, F. (2009). Dietary exposure assessment of Chinese adults and nursing infants to tetrabromobisphenol-a and hexabromocyclododecanes: occurrence measurements in foods and human milk. Environmental Science & Technology, 43(12), 4314–4319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar