Assessment of seasonal variation for air pollutant accumulation by Zizyphus tree under washing treatment

  • Mohamed Abdulraheem Shaheen
  • Fathy Saad El-Nakhlawy
  • Fahd Mosallam Almehmadi
  • Muhammad Zahid Ihsan
  • Abdulmohsin Rajeh Al-Shareef


A field study was carried out near Jeddah Industrial Zone to estimate the leaf impairment, physiological disorders, and air pollutant accumulation potential of Ziziphus tree. The experiment was triplicated in RCBD design with factorial arrangement having seasonality as the main plot and washing as subplot treatments along with the control. Accumulation of heavy metals and micronutrients in plant foliage varied significantly under the influence of seasons and washing treatments. The maximum accumulation of cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were perceived in summer season while the minimum was observed in winter. Contrarily, a greater acquisition of iron, copper, zinc, and manganese was observed in autumn. Washing significantly reduced the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb by 58, 90, 80, and 96 %, while Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn by 89, 37, 60, and 93 %, respectively. Leaf protein and nitrogen content illustrated a greater adjustment for pollutants by presenting a minimum variation (14–18 % and 2–3 %) to seasonality. In contrast, leaf area and stomatal aperture were significantly disturbed and resulted in minimum recovery under washing. Correlation analysis revealed a stronger negative interaction of heavy metal accumulation to leaf features while non-significant interaction was perceived for microelements. In conclusion, planting of Ziziphus trees along industrial areas may impede potential threats of toxic pollutants to human and ecosystem.


Industrial pollutants Lead Leaf protein Phytoremediation Correlation coefficient Air pollutant 



Analysis of variance


General Authority of Civil Aviation


Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry


Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy


Jeddah Development and Urban Regeneration Company


Least significant difference


Particulate matter


Presidency of Meteorology and Environment


Randomized complete block design


Reactive oxygen species


Saudi geological survey


Volatile organic compounds


  1. Aburas, H. M., Zytoon, M. A., & Abdulsalam, M. I. (2011). Atmospheric lead in PM 2.5 after leaded gasoline phase‐out in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water, 39, 711–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akimoto, H. (2003). Global air quality and pollution. Science, 302, 1716–1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Jeelani, H. (2009). Evaluation of air quality in the Holy Makkah during Hajj season 1425 H. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 75, 115–121.Google Scholar
  4. Al-Khlaifat, A. L., & Al-Khashman, O. A. (2007). Atmospheric heavy metal pollution in Aqaba city, Jordan, using Phoenix dactylifera L. leaves. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 8891–8897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Canepari, S., Astolfi, M., Farao, C., Maretto, M., Frasca, D., Marcoccia, M., & Perrino, C. (2014). Seasonal variations in the chemical composition of particulate matter: a case study in the Po Valley. Part II: concentration and solubility of micro-and trace-elements. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21, 4010–4022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Çelik, A., Kartal, A. A., Akdoğan, A., & Kaska, Y. (2005). Determining the heavy metal pollution in Denizli (Turkey) by using Robinio pseudo-acacia L. Environment International, 31, 105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ghim, Y. S., Choi, Y., Chang, Y. S., & Kim, J. (2014). Natural and anthropogenic influences on heavy metals in airborne particles over the Korean Peninsula. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21, 10713–10724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hassan, I. A., & Basahi, J. M. (2013). Assessing roadside conditions and vehicular emissions using roadside lettuce plants. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 22, 387–393.Google Scholar
  9. Husain, T., & Ahmed, A. K. (2013). Environment and sustainable development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: current status and future strategy. Journal of Sustainable Development, 6, 14–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jayyusi, S. (2006). Beyond the dunes: an anthology of modern Saudi literature: IB Tauris.Google Scholar
  11. JEA. (2013). Data assessment and analysis report air quality. Jeddah KSA March, 2013, 1–163.Google Scholar
  12. Kampa, M., & Castanas, E. (2008). Human health effects of air pollution. Environmental Pollution, 151, 362–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kulkarni, P., Baron, P. A., & Willeke, K. (2011). Aerosol measurement: principles, techniques, and applications. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  14. Li, Z., Chang, X., Zou, X., Zhu, X., Nie, R., Hu, Z., & Li, R. (2009). Chemically-modified activated carbon with ethylenediamine for selective solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of metal ions. Analytica Chimica Acta, 632, 272–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mohan, D., & Pittman, C. U. (2007). Arsenic removal from water/wastewater using adsorbents—a critical review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 142, 1–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Montes-Bayon, M., Pröfrock, D., Sanz-Medel, A., & Prange, A. (2006). Direct comparison of capillary electrophoresis and capillary liquid chromatography hyphenated to collision-cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the investigation of Cd-, Cu-and Zn-containing metalloproteins. Journal of Chromatography A, 1114, 138–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nagajyoti, P., Lee, K., & Sreekanth, T. (2010). Heavy metals, occurrence and toxicity for plants: a review. Environmental Chemistry Letters, 8, 199–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nishanth, T., Praseed, K., Rathnakaran, K., Kumar, M. S., Krishna, R. R., & Valsaraj, K. (2012). Atmospheric pollution in a semi-urban, coastal region in India following festival seasons. Atmospheric Environment, 47, 295–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Oksanen, E. J. (2014). Environmental pollution and function of plant leaves. Physiology and Maintenance, 5, 1–5.Google Scholar
  20. Oliva, S. R., & Mingorance, M. (2006). Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution by aboveground plant parts. Chemosphere, 65, 177–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pourkhabbaz, A., Rastin, N., Olbrich, A., Langenfeld-Heyser, R., & Polle, A. (2010). Influence of environmental pollution on leaf properties of urban plane trees, Platanus orientalis L. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 85, 251–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pulford, I., & Watson, C. (2003). Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land by trees—a review. Environment International, 29, 529–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Robert, S., Torrie, J., & Dickey, D. (1997). Principles and procedures of statistics: a biometrical approach. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  24. Roberts-Semple, D., Song, F., & Gao, Y. (2012). Seasonal characteristics of ambient nitrogen oxides and ground-level ozone in metropolitan northeastern New Jersey. Atmospheric Pollution Research, 3.Google Scholar
  25. Seinfeld, J. H., & Pandis, S. N. (2012). Atmospheric chemistry and physics: from air pollution to climate change. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  26. Shaheen, M. A., El-Nakhlawy, F. S., Almehmadi, F. M., & Al-Shareef, A. R. (2013). Heavy metals contents in Ziziphus tree leaves under the effect of different industrial activities. Journal of Agricultural Science, 6, 110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sharma, S. S., & Dietz, K. J. (2009). The relationship between metal toxicity and cellular redox imbalance. Trends in Plant Science, 14, 43–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Verma, A., & Singh, S. (2006). Biochemical and ultrastructural changes in plant foliage exposed to auto-pollution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 120, 585–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ziarati, P., & Alaedini, S. (2014). The phytoremediation technique for cleaning up contaminated soil by Amaranthus sp.. Journal Environmental and Analytical Toxicology, 4, 208–211.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Abdulraheem Shaheen
    • 1
  • Fathy Saad El-Nakhlawy
    • 1
  • Fahd Mosallam Almehmadi
    • 2
  • Muhammad Zahid Ihsan
    • 1
  • Abdulmohsin Rajeh Al-Shareef
    • 3
  1. 1.Arid Land Agriculture Department, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land AgricultureKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Environmental Sciences Department, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land AgricultureKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Geography and Information System Department, Faculty of Arts and HumanitiesKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations