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Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption

  • Lorenzo Vilizzi
  • Ali Serhan Tarkan
Article

Abstract

Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

Keywords

Muscle Liver Gill Quartile analysis PERMANOVA 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to to Güler Ekmekçi, Baran Yoğurtçuoğlu, Fatma Kübra Erbay, Cüneyt Solak, Ünal Erdem, Naime Arslan, Ruşen Ustaoğlu, Oğuz Öztürk and İbrahim Cengizler for assistance with literature retrieval and organisation. Contribution to this study by LV was through a 2221 Fellowship Programme granted by The Scientific & Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) and The Department of Science Fellowships & Grant Programs (BİDEB).

Supplementary material

10661_2016_5248_MOESM1_ESM.docx (93 kb)
Table A1 (DOCX 92 kb)
10661_2016_5248_MOESM2_ESM.docx (58 kb)
Table A2 (DOCX 58 kb)

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of FisheriesIstanbul UniversityFatihTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of FisheriesMuğla Sıtkı Koçman UniversityKötekliTurkey

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