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Zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead concentrations in water, sediment, and Anadara senilis in a tropical estuary

  • Inza Bakary
  • Koffi Marcellin Yao
  • Olivier Assoi Etchian
  • Metongo Bernard Soro
  • Albert Trokourey
  • Yobou Bokra
Article

Abstract

Spatial and seasonal contaminations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead were assessed simultaneously in water, sediment, and in the bivalve Arca senilis from the Milliardaires Bay (Cote d’Ivoire) between February and October 2008. The metal load in sediments doubled from the dry season to the rainy season. On the contrary, metal concentrations in waters decreased significantly from the dry season to the rainy season. Zn and Pb concentrations in A. senilis showed similar seasonal variation with sediments. On the other hand, A. senilis regulated Cu concentrations by eliminating about twelve times the concentration accumulated during the dry season. Apparent Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb concentration gradients were observed, but no significant differences between stations for sediment, water, and A. senilis. Concentrations in sediment increased from stations close to Abidjan Harbor towards farther stations, while concentrations in A. senilis showed a reverse gradient. The distribution gradient of A. senilis indicates pollution from local sources, but a transplant experiment is needed to better understand the observed spatial trend. Zn and Cu concentrations may pose little risk to human health and the environment, but they are the highest on the regional scale. On the contrary, Cd and Pb concentrations in A. senilis exceeded the maximum allowable limits set by the European Commission. Complementary studies including chemical speciation should be considered to provide a more accurate assessment of the risk of heavy metals to the environment.

Keywords

Heavy metals Pollution Water Sediment Molluscs 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The help of Dr. Carl H. Lamborg for the improvement of this manuscript was greatly appreciated. Authors thank Mary Zawoysky and Adiari I. Vazquez-Rodriguez for improving the edits. This work is part of the Ministère de l’Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique (Cote d’Ivoire) supported Institutional Project (Plan quinquennal). This article bears CRO contribution “BGF, chapter 600”.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre de Recherches Océanologiques (CRO)AbidjanCôte d’Ivoire
  2. 2.Laboratoire de biologie et cytologie animalesUniversité Nangui AbrogouaAbidjan 02Côte d’Ivoire
  3. 3.Laboratoire de Chimie PhysiqueUniversité Félix Houphouët BoignyAbidjanCôte d’Ivoire

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