Effect of coated urea on cadmium accumulation in Oryza sativa L. grown in contaminated soil

  • Chao Xu
  • Zisong Wu
  • Qihong Zhu
  • Hanhua Zhu
  • Yangzhu Zhang
  • Daoyou Huang


Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of three types of coated urea on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in contaminated soil. Pot-culture experiments were conducted in a greenhouse from July to November 2012 on the rice cultivar “Hua Hang Si Miao” in Guangzhou (China). The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and three replications. The treatments were control (CK) (N 0 mg/kg), prilled urea (PU) (N 200 mg/kg), polymer-coated urea (PCU) (N 200 mg/kg), and sulfur-coated urea (SCU) (N 200 mg/kg). Our results indicated that applications of PCU and SCU slightly increased the dry weight of rice grains. The application of SCU significantly decreased the CaCl2 and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP)-extractable Cd concentrations by 15.4 and 56.1 %, respectively. Sequential extractions showed that PCU and SCU applications led to a significant decrease in Cd in the exchangeable fraction and an increase in the bound iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) oxides fractions. Cd concentrations in grains treated with PCU were reduced by 11.7 %, whereas SCU significantly reduced Cd concentrations by 29.1 %. SCU reduced Cd transfer from the straws to the grain. Our results demonstrated that PCU and SCU may be effective in mitigating Cd accumulation in rice grown in acidic Cd-contaminated soil, especially in plants receiving SCU.


Contaminated soil Coated urea Heavy metal Availability Rice 



This project was supported by grants from the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41101293), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2014M562110), the National Key Technologies R & D Program of China (2015BAD05B02), and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of Ministry of Education of China (No. 20114404120015).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical RegionInstitute of Subtropical Agricultural, CASChangshaChina
  2. 2.College of Resources and EnvironmentHunan Agricultural UniversityChangshaChina
  3. 3.College of Natural Resources and EnvironmentSouth China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouChina

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