Effect of coated urea on cadmium accumulation in Oryza sativa L. grown in contaminated soil
- 230 Downloads
Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of three types of coated urea on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in contaminated soil. Pot-culture experiments were conducted in a greenhouse from July to November 2012 on the rice cultivar “Hua Hang Si Miao” in Guangzhou (China). The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and three replications. The treatments were control (CK) (N 0 mg/kg), prilled urea (PU) (N 200 mg/kg), polymer-coated urea (PCU) (N 200 mg/kg), and sulfur-coated urea (SCU) (N 200 mg/kg). Our results indicated that applications of PCU and SCU slightly increased the dry weight of rice grains. The application of SCU significantly decreased the CaCl2 and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP)-extractable Cd concentrations by 15.4 and 56.1 %, respectively. Sequential extractions showed that PCU and SCU applications led to a significant decrease in Cd in the exchangeable fraction and an increase in the bound iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) oxides fractions. Cd concentrations in grains treated with PCU were reduced by 11.7 %, whereas SCU significantly reduced Cd concentrations by 29.1 %. SCU reduced Cd transfer from the straws to the grain. Our results demonstrated that PCU and SCU may be effective in mitigating Cd accumulation in rice grown in acidic Cd-contaminated soil, especially in plants receiving SCU.
KeywordsContaminated soil Coated urea Heavy metal Availability Rice
This project was supported by grants from the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41101293), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2014M562110), the National Key Technologies R & D Program of China (2015BAD05B02), and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of Ministry of Education of China (No. 20114404120015).
- An, Z. Z., Wang, X. C., Yan, W. D., & Shi, W. M. (2004). Effects of sulfate and cadmium interaction on cadmium accumulation and content of nonprotein thiols in rice seedlings. Acta Pedologica Sinica, 41(5), 728–733 in Chinses.Google Scholar
- Chen, H. M., & Zheng, C. R. (1996). Cadmium. In heavy metals pollution in soil-plant systems. Beijing: Science Press in Chinese.Google Scholar
- Gong, W. Q., & Pan, G. X. (2006). Issues of grain Cd uptake and the potential health risk of rice production sector of China. Science Techonology Review, 24, 43–48 in Chinses.Google Scholar
- Granta, C. A., Wu, R., Selles, F., Harker, K. N., Clayton, G. W., Bittman, S., Zebarth, B. J., & Lupwayi, N. Z. (2012). Crop yield and nitrogen content with controlled release urea and split applications of nitrogen as compared to non-coated urea applied at seeding. Field Crops Research, 127, 170–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hu, K., Yu, H., Feng, W. Q., Qin, Y. S., Lan, L., Liao, M. L., Wang, C. Q., & Tu, S. H. (2011). Effects of secondary, micro-and beneficial elements on rice growth and cadmium uptake. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 31(8), 2341–2348 in Chinses.Google Scholar
- Lu, R. K. (2000). Assay on agro-chemical properties of soil. Beijing: China Agricultural Science and Technology Press in Chinese.Google Scholar
- Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China (2012). National Standard of Food Safety-Maximum Levels of Contaminants in Food. Resource document. National Standard of the People’s Republic of China. http://www.seafish.org/media/publications/China_Max_levels_of_contaminants_in_food.pdf. Accessed 13 October 2015.
- Pan, Y., Gao, Z. P., Wang, J. A., & Liu, Z. Q. (2015). Effects of sulfur on the accumulation and subcellular distribution of cadmium in rice seedlings. Journal of Agricultural Resources and Environment, 32(3), 1–7 in Chinese.Google Scholar
- Qu, G. W., & Yi, Y. L. (2006). Effect of polyacrylate polymers on the absorption of heavy metal and remediation of artificially polluted soil with cadmium. Journal of Anhui Agricultural Science, 34(20), 5331–5333, 5335 in Chinese.Google Scholar
- SPSS Corporation. Released (2008). SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 16.0. Chicago: SPSS Corporation.Google Scholar
- Sun, Y. F., Xie, Z. M., Xu, J. M., Li, J., & Zhao, K. L. (2005). Assessment of toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Environmental Science, 26(3), 152–156 in Chinese.Google Scholar
- Teng, B., Li, Z. L., Xiao, L. Z., Zhang, Y., Wu, J. D., Zhu, X. G., & Xuan, H. (2011). Effect of nitrogen application level on yield, quality, and Hg, As, Cd concentrations in grains of high quality rice. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 27(7), 30–33 in Chinese.Google Scholar
- Wang, D., Li, X., Wang, D. C., Rao, W., Du, G. H., Yang, J., & Hua, D. L. (2015). Influence of sulfur on the formation of Fe-Mn plaque on root uptake of Cd by rice (Oryza sativa L.). Environmental Science, 36(5), 1877–1887 in Chinese.Google Scholar
- Xiao, Z. L., Wang, G., Huang, R. Q., Zhang, L. M., & Zhang, J. L. (2008). Extraction method for available cadmium in acid soils. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 27(2), 795–800 in Chinese.Google Scholar
- Yi, C. Z., Fu, G. P., & Zhang, F. S. (1996). Effect of different potash fertilizers on Cd uptake and translocation in rice. Journal of China Agricultural University, 1(3), 66–70.Google Scholar