Advertisement

Variation in Populus euphratica foliar carbon isotope composition and osmotic solute for different groundwater depths in an arid region of China

  • Jianhua Si
  • Qi Feng
  • Tengfei Yu
  • Chunyan Zhao
  • Wei Li
Article

Abstract

Water use efficiency (WUE) is an important trait associated with plant acclimation caused by water deficits, and δ13C is a good surrogate of WUE under conditions of water deficits. Water deficiency also enhances the accumulation of compatible solutes in the leaves. In this study, variations in foliar δ13C values and main osmotic solutes were investigated. Those included total soluble sugar (TSS), sucrose, free proline, glycine betaine (GB), and inorganic ionic (K+, Ca2+, and Cl) content of Populus euphratica for different groundwater depths in a Ejina desert riparian forest, China. Results indicated that foliar δ13C values in the P. euphratica for different groundwater depths ranged from −29.14 ± 0.06 to −25.84 ± 0.04 ‰. Foliar δ13C signatures became richer as groundwater levels declined. TSS, sucrose, free proline, GB, and K+ were accumulated in P. euphratica foliage with developing plant growth and increasing groundwater depth. Ca2+ and Cl content increased under stronger P. euphratica transpiration rates for shallower groundwater depths (1–2.5 m) and decreased for deeper groundwater depths (greater than 3.0 m). Moreover, correlations between δ13C, osmotic solutes, and groundwater depths showed that the primary osmotic solutes were TSS, sucrose, proline, GB, and K+. Correlations also showed that δ13C was not only a useful measure for P. euphratica-integrated WUE but also could be used as an indicator reflecting some physiological osmotic indexes.

Keywords

Water use efficiency Stable carbon isotope Osmotic solutes Groundwater depth Populus euphratica 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation Major Research Plan (91025024), the Key Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KZZD-EW-04-05), and the “Western Light” Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

References

  1. Adamec, L. (2002). Leaf absorption of mineral nutrients in carnivorous plants stimulates root nutrient uptake. New Phytol, 155, 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen, M. N., Jensen, C. R., & Losch, R. (1992). The interaction effects of potassium and drought in field-grown barley: I. yield, water-use efficiency and growth. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Plant Soil Science, 42, 34–44.Google Scholar
  3. Bano, A., Rehman, A., & Winiger, M. (2009). Altitudinal variation in the content of protein, proline, sugar and abscisic acid (aba) in the alpine herbs from hunza valley, Pakistan. Pak J Bot, 41, 1593–1602.Google Scholar
  4. Barker, D. J., Sullivan, C. Y., & Moser, L. E. (1993). Water deficit effects on osmotic potential, cell wall elasticity, and proline in five forage grasses. Agron J, 85, 270–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bates, L. S., Waldren, R. P., & Teare, I. D. (1973). Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil, 39, 205–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blackman, S. A. (1992). Maturation proteins and sugars in desiccation-tolerance of developing soybean seeds. Plant Physiol, 100, 225–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carvajal, M., Martinez, V., & Alcaraz, C. F. (1999). Physiological function of water-channels, as affected by salinity in roots of paprika pepper. Physiol Plant, 105, 95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chaves, M. M., Maroco, J. P., & Pereira, J. S. (2003). Understanding plant responses to drought from genes to the whole plant. Funct Plant Biol, 30, 239–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen, Y. N., Chen, Y. P., & Li, W. H. (2003). Response of proline accumulation to the change of groundwater table in lower reaches of tarim river. Chin Sci Bull, 48, 958–961.Google Scholar
  10. Chen, Y., & Burris, J. S. (1990). Roles of carbohydrates in desiccation tolerance and membrane behavior in maturing maize seed. Crop Sci, 30, 971–975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Condon, A. G., Richards, R. A., Rebetzke, G. J., & Farquhar, G. D. (2002). Improving water-use efficiency and crop yield. Crop Sci, 42, 122–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cushman, J. C. (2001). Osmoregulation in plants: implications for agriculture. Am Zool, 41, 758–769.Google Scholar
  13. Dawson, T. E., Mambelli, S., Plamboeck, A. H., Templer, P. H., & Tu, K. P. (2002). Stable isotopes in plant ecology. Annu Rev Ecol Syst, 33, 507–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Damesin, C., & Lelarge, C. (2003). Carbon isotope composition of current year shoots from Fagus sylvatica in relation to growth, respiration and use of reserves. Plant, Cell and Environment, 26, 207–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dubois, M., Gilles, K. A., Hamilton, J. K., Rebers, P. A., & Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for the determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem, 28, 350–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Evans, R. D., Black, R. A., Loescher, W. H., & Fellows, R. J. (1992). Osmotic relation of the drought-tolerant shrub artemesia tridentata in response to water stress. Plant, Cell and Environment, 15, 49–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Farquhar, G. D., O’Leary, M. H., & Berry, J. A. (1982). On the relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration in leaves. Aust J Plant Physiol, 9, 121–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Farquhar, G. D., Ehleringer, J. R., & Hubick, K. T. (1989). Carbon isotope discrimination and photosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol, 40, 503–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Francisco, Z. A., Pawela, L. N., & Mark, B. (2001). Regeneration of native trees in response to flood releases from the united states into the delta of the Colorado River, Mexico. J Arid Environ, 49, 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gao, T. P., Chen, T., Feng, H. Y., An, L. Z., Xu, S. J., & Wang, X. L. (2006). Seasonal and annual variation of osmotic solute and stable carbon isotope composition in leaves of endangered desert evergreen shrub Ammopiptanthus mongolicus. S Afr J Bot, 72, 570–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Garten, C. T., & Taylor, G. E. (1992). Foliar δ13C within a temperate deciduous forest: spatial, temporal and species sources of variation. Oecologia, 90, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guerrier, G., & Patolia, J. S. (1989). Comparative salt responses of excised cotyledons and seedlings of pea to various osmotic and ionic stresses. J Plant Physiol, 135, 330–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Greenway, H., & Munns, R. (1980). Mechanisms of salt tolerance in nonhalophytes. Annu Rev Plant Physiol, 31, 149–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Handa, S., Handa, A. K., Paul, M. H., & Ray, A. E. (1986). Proline accumulation and the adoption of cultured plant cells to water stress. Plant Physiol, 80, 938–945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Helle, G., & Schleser, G. H. (2004). Beyond CO2-fixation by Rubisco—an interpretation of C-13/C-12 variations in tree rings from novel intraseasonal studies on broad-leaf trees. Plant, Cell Environment, 27, 367–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Issac, R. A. (1980). Atomic absorption methods for analysis of soil extracts and plant tissue digests. Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 63, 793–799.Google Scholar
  27. Khan, M. A., Shirazi, M. U., Ali Khan, M., Mujtaba, S. M., Islam, E., Mumtaz, S., Shereen, A., & Yasin Ashraf, M. (2009). Role of proline, K/Na ratio and chlorophyll content in salt tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivuml.). Pak J Bot, 41, 633–638.Google Scholar
  28. Liu, W., Wang, Z. J., & Xi, H. Y. (2008). Variations of physical and chemical properties of water and soil and their significance to ecosystem in the lower reaches of Heihe River. J Glaciol Geocryol, 30, 688–696 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  29. Ludlow, M. M., Santamaria, J. M., & Fukai, S. (1990). Contribution of osmotic adjustment to grain yield in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench under water limited conditions. II. water stress after anthesis. Aust J Agric Res, 41, 67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ma, T. J., Liu, Q. L., Li, Z., & Zhang, X. J. (2002). Tonoplast H+-ATPase in response to salt stress in Populus euphratica cell suspensions. Plant Sci, 163, 499–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Maggio, A., Reddy, M. P., & Joly, R. J. (2000). Leaf gas exchange and solute accumulation in the halophyte Salvadora persica grown at moderate salinity. Environ Exp Bot, 44, 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Martínez-Ballesta, M. C., Martínez, V., & Carvajal, M. (2004). Osmotic adjustment, water relations and gas exchange in pepper plants grown under NaCl or KCl. Environ Exp Bot, 52, 161–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mattioni, C., Lacerenza, N. G., Troccoli, A., De Leonardis, A. M., & Di Fonzo, N. (1997). Water and salt stress-induced alterations in proline metabolism of Triticum durum seedlings. Physiol Plant, 101, 787–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McCree, K. J., & Richardson, S. G. (1987). Stomatal closure vs. osmotic adjustment: a comparison of stress responses. Crop Sci, 27, 539–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Merah, O., Monneveux, P., & Deleens, E. (2001). Relationships between flag leaf carbon isotope discrimination and several morpho-physiological traits in durum wheat genotypes under Mediterranean conditions. Environ Exp Bot, 45, 63–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Naidu, B. P., Paleg, L. G., & Jones, G. P. (2000). Accumulation of proline analogues and acclimation of melaleuca species to diverse environments in Australia. Aust J Plant Physiol, 48, 611–620.Google Scholar
  37. Papageorgiou, G. C., & Morata, N. (1995). The usually strong stabilizing effects of glycine betaine on the structure and function in the oxygen evolving photosystem-ii complex. Photosynth Res, 44, 243–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rekika, D., Nachit, M. M., Araus, J. L., & Monneveux, P. (1998). Effects of water deficit on photosynthetic rate and osmotic adjustment in tetraploid wheats. Photosynthetica, 35, 129–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ruan, X., Wang, Q., Pan, C. D., Chen, Y. N., & Jiang, H. (2008). Physiological acclimation strategies of riparian plants to environment change in the delta of the Tarim River, China. Environ Geol, 57, 1761–1773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sandquist, D. R., & Ehleringer, J. R. (2003). Carbon isotope discrimination differences within and between contrasting populations of Encelia farinosa raised under common environment conditions. Oecologia, 134, 463–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sharma, A., Dwivedi, B. N., Singh, B., & Kumar, K. (1999). Introduction of Populus euphratica in indian semi-arid trans gangetic plains. Ann For, 7, 1–8.Google Scholar
  42. Seghatoleslami, M. J., Kafi, M., & Majidi, E. (2008). Effect of drought stress at different growth stages on yield and water use efficiency of five proso millet (Panicum miliaceuml.) genotypes. Pak J Bot, 40, 1427–1432.Google Scholar
  43. Storey, R., & Jones, R. G. W. (1977). Quaternary ammonium compounds in plants in relation to salt resistance. Phytochemistry, 16, 447–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Su, P. X., Chen, H. S., & Li, Q. S. (2003). Characteristics of δ13C values of desert plants and their water utilization efficiency indicated by δ13c values in the desert of central hexi corridor region. J Glaciol Geocryol, 25, 597–602 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  45. Toft, N. L., Anderson, J. E., & Nowak, R. S. (1989). Water use efficiency and carbon isotope composition of plants in a cold desert environment. Oecologia, 80, 11–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Voetberg, G. S., & Sharp, R. E. (1991). Growth of maize primary root at low water potentials. III. role of increased proline deposition in osmotic adjustment. Plant Physiol, 96, 1125–1130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang, Q., Ruan, X., Chen, Y. N., & Li, W. H. (2007). Eco-physiological response of Populus euphratica Oliv to water release of the lower reaches of the Tarim river, China. Environ Geol, 53, 349–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Watanabe, S., Katsumi, K., Ide, Y., & Sasaki, S. (2000). Effects of saline and osmotic stress on proline and sugar accumulation in Populus euphratica in vitro. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult, 63, 199–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wright, G. C., Hubick, K. T., & Farquhar, G. D. (1988). Discrimination in carbon isotope of leaves correlated with water-use efficiency of field-grown peanut cultivars. Aust J Plant Physiol, 15, 815–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Xie, H. S., Hsiao, A. I., & Quick, W. A. (1997). Influence of drought on graminicide phytoxicity in wild oat (Avena fatua) growth under difference temperature and humidity conditions. J Plant Growth Regul, 24, 617–622.Google Scholar
  51. Xiong, L., & Zhu, J. K. (2002). Molecular and genetic aspects of plant responses to osmotic stress. Plant, Cell and Environment, 25, 131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhao, L. J., Xiao, H. L., Cheng, G. D., Song, Y. X., Zhao, L., Li, C. Z., & Yang, Q. (2008). A preliminary study of water sources of riparian plants in the lower reaches of the Heihe basin. Acta Geosci Sin, 29, 709–718 (In Chinese).Google Scholar
  53. Zhu, J.M. Studies on selective utilization of water by plants in aridland region. Dissertation, Chinese Academy of Forestry, 2007. (In Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianhua Si
    • 1
  • Qi Feng
    • 1
  • Tengfei Yu
    • 1
  • Chunyan Zhao
    • 1
  • Wei Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research InstituteChinese Academy of SciencesLanzouChina

Personalised recommendations