Advertisement

Pollution distribution and health risk assessment of heavy metals in indoor dust in Anhui rural, China

  • Yuesheng Lin
  • Fengman Fang
  • Fei Wang
  • Minglu Xu
Article

Abstract

Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Co, and As concentrations of indoor dust in Anhui rural were determined by inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The degrees of metal pollution in indoor dust ranked as follows: Zn > Pb > Cr > Cu > V > Ni > Co > As, on average. The arithmetic means of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, V, Ni, Co, and As were 427.17, 348.73, 107.05, 113.68, 52.64, 38.93, 10.29, and 4.46 mg/kg, respectively. These were higher than background values of Anhui soil for Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Ni, especially for Pb with the mean value of 13.21 times the background value. Heavy metal concentrations of indoor dust were different from different rural areas. House type (bungalows or storied house), sweeping frequency, and external environment around the house (such as the road grade) affected heavy metal concentrations in indoor dust. The results of factor analysis and correlation analysis indicated that Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Co concentrations were mainly due to interior paint, metal objects, and building materials. Pb and As concentrations were due to vehicle emissions. V concentration was mainly of natural source. Average daily doses for the exposure pathway of the studied heavy metals decreased in children in the following order: hand-to-mouth ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. The non-carcinogenic risks of heavy metals ranked as Pb > V > Cr > Cu > Zn > As > Co > Ni, and the carcinogenic risks of metals decreased in the order of Cr > Co > As > Ni. The non-carcinogenic hazard indexes and carcinogenic risks of metals in indoor dust were both lower than the safe values.

Keywords

Indoor dust Heavy metal Health risks Pollution distribution Anhui rural areas 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41371480) and Anhui Key Laboratory of Natural Disaster Process and Protection Research.

References

  1. Abdul-Wahaba, S., & Yaghi, B. (2004). Total suspended dust and heavy metal levels emitted from a workplace compared with nearby residential houses. Atmospheric Environment, 38, 745–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adgate, J., Rhoads, G., & Lioy, P. (1998). The use of isotope ratios to apportion sources of lead in Jersey City, NJ, house dust wipe samples. Science of the Total Environment, 221, 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AEMC. (1992). Soil environmental background value study report of Anhui province. Anhui Environmental Monitoring Center.Google Scholar
  4. Barbieri, E., Fontúrbel, F. E., Herbas, C., Barbieri, F. L., & Gardon, J. (2014). Indoor metallic pollution and children exposure in a mining city. Science of the Total Environment, 487, 13–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cai, Q., Mo, C., Li, H., Lv, H., Zeng, Q., Li, Y., et al. (2013). Heavy metal contamination of urban soils and dusts in Guangzhou, South China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 1095–1106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chattopadhyay, G., Lin, K., & Feitz, A. (2003). Household dust metal levels in the Sydney metropolitan area. Environmental Research, 93, 301–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen, H., Lu, X., & Li, L. (2014). Spatial distribution and risk assessment of metals in dust based on samples from nursery and primary schools of Xi’an, China. Atmospheric Environment, 88, 172–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Culbard, E., Thornton, I., Watt, J., Wheat, M., Moorcroft, Y., & Thompso, M. (1988). Metal contamination in British urban dusts and soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 17, 226–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fang, F., Wang, H., & Lin, Y. (2011). Spatial distribution, bioavailability, and health riskassessment of soil Hg in Wuhu urban area, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 179(1-4), 255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Feng, Y., & Barratt, R. (1994). Lead and cadmium composition in indoor dust. Science of the Total Environment, 152, 261–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fergusson, J., & Schroeder, O. (1985). Lead in house dust of Christchurch, New Zealand: sampling, levels and sources. Science of the Total Environment, 46, 61–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fergusson, J., Forbes, E., Schroeder, R., & Ryan, D. (1986). The elemental composition and sources of house dust and street dust. Science of the Total Environment, 50, 217–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gilbert, R. O. (1987). Statistical methods for environmental pollution monitoring (pp. 177–185). New York: VanNostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  14. Han, Z., Bi, X., Li, Z., Yang, W., Wang, L., Yang, H., et al. (2012). Occurrence, speciation and bioaccessibility of lead in Chinese rural household dust and the associated health risk to children. Atmospheric Environment, 46, 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hassan, S. (2012). Metal concentrations and distribution in the household, stairs and entryway dust of some Egyptian homes. Atmospheric Environment, 54, 207–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hwang, H., Park, E., Young, T., & Hammock, B. (2008). Occurrence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in indoor dust. Science of the Total Environment, 404, 26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. James, W., Evan, C., Jaroslav, V., & Barry, P. (1974). House and hand dust as a potential source of childhood lead exposure. Original Articles, 127, 167–170.Google Scholar
  18. Jaroslav, V., Ellen, T., James, W., & Evan, C. (1974). Lead analysis of house dust: a method for the detection of another source of lead exposure in inner city children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 7, 91–97.Google Scholar
  19. Jun, Y., Kumiko, Y., Ayumi, Y., Yuri, I., Takaya, K., Kodai, M., et al. (2014). Lead and other elements in house dust of Japanese residents—source of lead and health risks due to metal exposure. Environmental Pollution, 189, 223–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kim, N., & Fergusson, J. (1993). Concentrations and sources of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in house dust in Christchurch, New Zealand. Science of the Total Environment, 138, 1–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lanphear, B., Matte, T., Rogers, J., Clickner, R. P., Dietz, B., Bornschein, R. L., et al. (1998). The contribution of lead-contaminated house dust and residential soil to children's blood lead levels: a pooled analysis of 12 epidemiologic studies. Environmental Research, 79, 51–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Latif, M., Baharudin, N., Velayutham, P., Awang, N., Hamdan, H., Mohamad, R., et al. (2011). Composition of heavy metals and airborne fibersin the indoor environment of a building during renovation. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 181, 479–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li, X., & Xie, X. (2013). A study on heavy metals in household dusts in 3 cities in Southwestern China. China Environmental Science, 33, 365–371. In Chinese.Google Scholar
  24. Liggans, G., & Nriagu, J. (1998). Lead poisoning of children in Africa, IV: exposure to dust lead in primary schools in south-central Durban, South Africa. Science of the Total Environment, 221, 117–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lu, X., Wu, X., Wang, Y., Chen, H., Cao, P., & Fu, L. (2014). Risk assessment of toxic metals in street dust from a medium-sized industrial city of China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 106, 154–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lucas, J., Bellanger, L., Strat, Y., Tertre, A., Glorennec, P., Bot, B., et al. (2014). Source contributions of lead in residential floor dust and within-home variability of dust lead loading. Science of the Total Environment, 471, 768–779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marek, L., Robert, H., & Jerzy, G. (2000). Granulometry and the content of toxic and potentially toxic elements in vacuum-cleaner collected, indoor dusts of the city of Warsaw. Science of the Total Environment, 263(1/3), 69–78.Google Scholar
  28. Meyer, I., Heinrich, J., & Lippold, U. (1999). Factors affecting lead and cadmium levels in house dust in industrial areas of eastern Germany. Science of the Total Environment, 234, 25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Petrosyan, V., Braun, M., Spalinger, S., & Lindern, I. (2006). Seasonal variations of lead concentration and loading rates in residential house dust in northern Idaho. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 132, 68–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Philippe, G., Lucas, J., Mandin, C., & Bot, B. (2012). French children's exposure to metals via ingestion of indoor dust, outdoor playground dust and soil: Contamination data. Environment International, 45, 129–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rasmussen, P., Subramanian, K., & Jessiman, B. (2001). A multi-element profile of house dust in relation to exterior dust and soils in the city of Ottawa, Canada. Science of the Total Environment, 267, 125–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rasmussen, P., Levesque, C., Chénier, M., Gardner, H. D., Jones-Otazo, H., & Petrovic, S. (2013). Canadian house dust study: population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes. Science of the Total Environment, 443, 520–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Taner, S., Pekey, B., & Pekey, H. (2013). Fine particulate matter in the indoor air of barbeque restaurants: elemental compositions, sources and health risks. Science of the Total Environment, 454, 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tao, C., Jia, S., Cheng, Y., Cheng, F., & Xin, R. (2013). A study on geochemical baseline value and environmental background value of soils in the Chuzhou area. Geology of Anhui, 23(4), 286–291. In Chinese.Google Scholar
  35. Tong, S., & Lam, K. (1998). Are nursery schools and kindergartens safe for our kids? The Hong Kong study. Science of the Total Environment, 216, 217–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Turner, A., & Ip, K. (2007). Bioaccessibility of metals in dust from the indoor environment: application of a physiologically based extraction test. Environmental Science & Technology, 41, 7851–7856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. US EPA. (1989). Risk assessment guidance for superfund (volume I) human health evaluation manual (pp. 1–89). Washington: Office of Soild Waste and Emergency Response, US Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  38. US EPA. (1996). Soil screening guidance: Technical background document. EPA/540/R-95/128. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.Google Scholar
  39. US EPA. (2001). Supplemental guidance for developing soil screening levels for superfund sites. OSWER 9355.4-24. Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.Google Scholar
  40. Wang, Y., Thornton, I., & Farago, M. (1997). Changes in lead concentrations in the home environment in Birmingham, England over the period 1984–1996. Science of the Total Environment, 207, 149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wei, X., Gao, B., Wang, P., Zhou, H., & Lu, J. (2015). Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in street dusts from different functional areas in Beijing, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 112, 186–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yoshinaga, J., Yamasaki, K., Yonemura, A., Ishibashi, Y., Kaido, T., Mizuno, K., et al. (2014). Lead and other elements in house dust of Japanese residences—source of lead and health risks due to metal exposure. Environmental Pollution, 189, 223–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yuan, X., Zhang, C., Sun, Q., & Wu, C. (2011). Characteristices of heavy metal concentrations in soil around coal mining area in Suzhou city. Environmental Chemistry, 30(8), 1451–1455. In Chinese.Google Scholar
  44. Zheng, N., Liu, J., Wang, Q., & Liang, Z. (2010). Health risk assessment of heavy metal exposure to street dust in the zinc smelting district, Northeast of China. Science of the Total Environment, 408, 726–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zheng, J., Chen, K., Yan, X., Chen, S., Hu, G., Peng, X., et al. (2013). Heavy metals in food, house dust, and water from an e-waste recycling area in South China and the potential risk to human health. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 96, 205–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuesheng Lin
    • 1
  • Fengman Fang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fei Wang
    • 2
  • Minglu Xu
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Live SciencesAnhui Normal UniversityWuhuChina
  2. 2.College of Territorial Resources and TourismAnhui Normal UniversityWuhuChina

Personalised recommendations