Relationship between the elemental composition of stream biofilms and water chemistry—a catchment approach
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As benthic biofilms mediate essential functions in stream ecosystems (e.g., carbon flux, storage of nutrients and other substances), the element-specific regulation of the biofilm composition is of great interest. We tested whether (1) the elemental composition of biofilms is related to that of the water column and (2) there are different accumulation patterns from the dissolved phase (adsorption) and the particulate phase (incorporation of suspended matter). We analysed biomass parameters, nutrients and metals in biofilms and surface waters at 28 sites within a stream network (Bode catchment, Germany). Algal biomass in biofilms was dominated by diatoms. The P/C ratio in biofilms was positively related to total phosphorus of surface water (and to the proportion of agricultural area in the catchment) indicating phosphorus limitation of biofilms, whereas the N/C ratio was not related to nitrate levels of surface water, and neither the P/C nor the N/C ratio to the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of surface water. Biofilms were enriched in metals compared to their concentrations in water. The metals in biofilms were positively related to the concentration of dissolved metals in surface water for iron and strontium (but not for manganese, copper, zinc, arsenic or lead) and to the concentrations of particle-associated metals of surface waters for strontium and lead. Manganese and arsenic were the metals with a negative effect on the biomasses of biofilm diatoms and cyanobacteria. Overall, we observed element-specific accumulation patterns in biofilms with selected elements being related to the water column while others were probably subject to biofilm-internal processes.
KeywordsNutrients Stoichiometry Heavy metals Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) Stream biofilms River Bode
We thank many colleagues for their help during field sampling: S. Bauth, M. Cebula, T. David, H. Goreczka, M. Herzog, A. Hoff, U. Kiewel, B. Kuehn, K. Lerche, M. Mages, M. Schäffer and C. Völkner. A. Hoff, U. Link, B. Keller and M. Wengler contributed to subsequent analyses in the laboratory. The TERENO infrastructure is funded by the Helmholtz Association and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Furthermore, we would like to thank Frederic Bartlett for the language corrections.
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