Contamination of rice field water with sulfonylurea and phenoxy herbicides in the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential risk of herbicide contamination (2,4-dichlorophenoxy (2,4-D), 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), metsulfuron, bensulfuron, and pyrazosulfuron) in the rice fields of the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia. The study included two areas with different irrigation water sources namely non-recycled (N-RCL) and recycled (RCL) water. Periodic water sampling was carried out from the drainage canals during the planting period of the wet season 2006/2007 and dry season 2007. The HPLC-UV was used to detect herbicide residues in the water samples collected from the rice fields. The results showed that the concentration of sulfonylurea herbicides such as bensulfuron and metsulfuron in the rice field was 0.55 and 0.51 μg/L, respectively. The potential risk of contamination depended on the actual dosage of each herbicide applied by farmers to their rice fields. The potential risk of water pollution by the five herbicides studied in the area with RCL water tended to be more widespread compared to the area with N-RCL water due to surface water runoff with higher levels of weedicides to the surrounding areas. During the two seasons, 50–73 % of the water samples collected from the area receiving RCL water contained the five herbicides studied at concentrations of more than 0.05 μg/L, and this percentage was higher than that from the areas receiving N-RCL water (45–69 %). During the wet season, the overall total mean concentration of the eight herbicides found in the samples collected from the area with RCL water (6.27 μg/L) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that from the area receiving N-RCL water (2.39 μg/L). Meanwhile, during the dry season, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the herbicide concentrations between the areas receiving RCL (6.16 μg/L) and N-RCL water (7.43 μg/L) water.
KeywordsHerbicides Non-recycled/recycled irrigation system Water pollution Contamination
This research was sponsored by UKM (Research Grant No. STGL 001-2006 and UKM-GUP-ASPL-07-05-005). The authors wish to express their utmost appreciation to Dr. Tu Poc Tuong and Dr. David Johnson from IRRI.
- Anon. (2009). Malaysian Agricultural and Directory Index 2009/2010 (12th ed.). Petaling Jaya: Agriquest Sdn. Bhd.Google Scholar
- Cheah, U. B., & Lum, K. Y. (1994). Pesticide residues and microbil contamination of water resources of rice in Muda area. In: B. M. Nashriyah, K. Y. Lum & B. S. Ismail (Eds.), Proceeding of the Seminar on Impact of Pesticides on the Rice Agroecosystem in the Muda area. Pulau Pinang, 12–13 December 1994.Google Scholar
- Cheah, U. B., & Lum, K. Y. (1998). Pesticide residues and microbial contamination of water resources in the Muda rice agroecosystem. In B. M. Nashriyah, N. K. Ho, B. S. Ismail, A. B. Ali, & K. Y. Lum (Eds.), Rice agroecosystem of the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Malaysia (pp. 200–206). Bangi: MINT-MADA.Google Scholar
- Cole, J. T., Baird, J. H., Basta, N. T., Huhnke, R. L., Storm, D. E., Johnson, G. V., Payton, M. E., Smolen, M. D., Martin, D. L., & Cole, J. C. (1997). Influence of buffers on pesticide and nutrient runoff from bermudagrass turf. Journal of Environment Quality, 26(1), 589–598.Google Scholar
- Deschamps, F. C., Noldin, J. A., Eberhardt, D. S., Hermes, L. C., & Knoblauch, R. (2003). Agrochemicals residues in water from rice production areas, in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. In: Brazilian Rice Congress, 3. Camboriú, 2003. Proceedings. Camboriú. p. 683–685.Google Scholar
- Ho, N. K. (1998). The rice agroecosystem of the Muda Irrigation Scheme: an overview. In B. M. Nashriyah, N. K. Ho, B. S. Ismail, A. B. Ali, & K. Y. Lum (Eds.), Rice agroecosystem of the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Malaysia (pp. 3–24). Bangi: MINT-MADA.Google Scholar
- Ismail, B. S., Noor Faezah, Z., & Ho, N. K. (1998). Weed population and their buried seeds in rice field of the Muda area. In B. M. Nashriyah, N. K. Ho, B. S. Ismail, A. B. Ali, & K. Y. Lum (Eds.), Rice agroecosystem of the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Malaysia (pp. 49–60). Bangi: MINT-MADA.Google Scholar
- Merkle M. G., & Bovey R. W. (1974). Movement of pesticides in surface water. In: W. D. Guenzi (Ed.), Pesticides in soil and water. Wisconsin: Madison. p. 99–105.Google Scholar
- Miller, G. T. (2004). Sustaining the Earth, 6th Ed., Chapter 9 (pp. 211–216). Los Angeles: Thompson learning.Google Scholar
- Pane, H., Mansor, M., & Ho, N. K. (1998). The invasion of Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees in the Muda area. In B. M. Nashriyah, N. K. Ho, B. S. Ismail, A. B. Ali, & K. Y. Lum (Eds.), Rice agroecosystem of the Muda Irrigation Scheme, Malaysia (pp. 61–71). Bangi: MINT-MADA.Google Scholar
- Rajan, A. (2002). Integrated weed management for sustainable rice production: concept, perspectives and options. In B. M. Nashriyah, N. K. Ho, B. S. Ismail, A. B. Ali, K. Y. Lum, & M. B. Mansor (Eds.), Sustainable rice production in Malaysia beyond 2000 (pp. 75–98). Bangi: MINT-MADA.Google Scholar
- Zanella, R., Primel, E. G., Machado, S. L. O., Gonçalves, F. F., & Marchezan, E. (2002). Monitoring of the herbicide clomazone in environmental water samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Chromatographia, 55, 573–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar