Advertisement

Heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risks associated with use of treated municipal wastewater in subsurface drip irrigation

  • Kamran Asgari
  • Wim M. Cornelis
Article

Abstract

Constant use of treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation over prolonged periods may cause buildup of heavy metals up to toxic levels for plants and animals, and entails environmental hazards in different aspects. However, application of TWW on agricultural land might be an effective and sustainable strategy in arid and semi-arid countries where fresh water resources are under great pressure, as long as potential harmful effects on the environment including soil, plants, and fresh water resources, and health risks to humans are minimized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of deep emitters on limiting potential heavy metal accumulation in soils and grains, and health risk under drip irrigation with treated municipal wastewater. A field experiment was conducted according to a split block design with two treatments (fresh and wastewater) and three sub-treatments (0, 15, and 30 cm depth of emitters) in four replicates on a sandy loam Calcic Argigypsids, in Esfahan, Iran. The annual rainfall is about 123 mm, mean annual ETo is 1457 mm, and the elevation is 1590 m above sea level. A two-crop rotation of wheat (Triticum spp.) and corn (Zea mays) was established on each plot with wheat growing from February to June and corn from July to September. Soil samples were collected before planting and after harvesting for each crop in each year. Edible grain samples of corn and wheat were collected at harvest. Elemental concentrations (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in soil and grains were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils were not significantly different (P > 0.05) compared with the freshwater-irrigated soils. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in heavy metal content in soil between different depths of emitters was found. A pollution load index (PLI) showed that there was no substantial buildup of heavy metals in the wastewater-irrigated soils compared to the freshwater-irrigated soils. Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations in wheat and corn grains were within the permissible US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits, but concentrations of Cd (in wheat and corn) and Cr (in corn) were above the safe limits of the EPA. In addition, concentrations of Ni in wheat and corn seeds were several folds higher than the EPA standards. A health risk index (HRI) which is usually adopted to assess the health risk to hazard materials in foods showed values higher than 1 for Cd, particularly for wheat grain (HRI >2.5). Results also showed that intake of Cu through consumption of edible wheat grains posed a relatively high potential health risk to children (HRI >1.4), whereas children might also be exposed to health risk from Cd and Cr from corn grains (HRI >1.4). Based on aforementioned results, it can be concluded that the emitter depth in drip irrigation does not play a significant role in the accumulation of heavy metals from TWW in our sandy loam soil. Although their accumulation in the soil was limited and similar to using freshwater, uptake of Cd and Cr by wheat and corn was relatively large and hence resulted in health risk. The results suggest that more attention should be directed towards cultivation of other crops with drip irrigation system for a safe and more productive use of wastewater for irrigation. Alternatively, methods that filter the wastewater before it enters the soil environment might be an option that needs further investigation.

Keywords

Municipal wastewater Subsurface drip irrigation system Health risk index Plant concentration factor Pollution load index Esfahan 

References

  1. Adams, W., & Chapman, P. (2003). A systemic health risk assessment for the chromium cycle in Taiwan. Environmental International, 33, 206–218.Google Scholar
  2. Arora, M., Kiran, B., Rani, S., Rani, A., Kaur, B., & Mittal, N. (2008). Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables irrigated with water from different sources. Food Chemistry, 111, 811–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asgari, K., & Najafi, P. (2008). Comparison of yield component and WUE of corn and sunflower in different irrigation system and treated municipal wastewater reuse. Crop Research, 35, 190–194.Google Scholar
  4. Asgari, K., Najafi, P., & Soleymani, A. (2007a). Effects of treated wastewater on growth parameters of sunflower in the irrigation treatments conditions. Crop Research, 33, 82–87.Google Scholar
  5. Asgari, K., Najafi, P., Soleymani, A., & Larabi, R. (2007b). Effects of treated municipal wastewater on growth parameters of corn in different irrigation conditions. Journal of Biological Sciences, 7, 1430–1435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ayars, J. E., Phene, C. J., Hutmacher, R. B., Davis, K. R., Schoneman, R. A., Vail, S. S., & Mead, R. M. (1999). Subsurface drip irrigation of row crops: a review of 15 years of research at the Water Management Research Laboratory. Agricultural Water Management, 42, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bieby Voijant, T., Siti Rozaimah Sheikh, A., Hassan, B., Mushrifah, I., Nurina, A., & Muhammad, M. (2011). A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2011, 939161. 31 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Carter, M. R., & Gregorich, E. G. (2007). Soil sampling and methods of analysis, Second Edition., CRC Press. 1264 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Chen, Z.-F., Zhao, Y., Zhu, Y., Yang, X., Qiao, J., Tian, Q., & Zhang, Q. (2010). Health risks of heavy metals in sewage-irrigated soils and edible seeds in Langfang of Hebei province, China. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90, 314–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen, C., Qian, Y., Chen, Q., Tao, C., Li, C., & Li, Y. (2011). Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Xiamen, China. Food Control, 22, 1114–1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chung, B. Y., Song, C. H., Park, B. J., & Cho, J. Y. (2011). Heavy metals in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) and soil after long-term irrigation of wastewater discharged from domestic sewage treatment plants. Pedosphere, 21, 621–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coelho, E., & Or, D. (1999). Root distribution and water uptake patterns of corn under surface and subsurface drip irrigation. Plant and Soil, 206, 123–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corwin, D., & Lesch, S. (2013). Protocols and guidelines for field-scale measurement of soil salinity distribution with ECa-directed soil sampling. Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 18, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cote, C., Bristow, K., Charlesworth, P., Cook, F., & Thorburn, P. (2003). Analysis of soil wetting and solute transport in subsurface trickle irrigation. Irrigation Science, 22, 143–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cui, Y. J., Zhu, Y. G., Zhai, R. H., Chen, D. Y., Huang, Y. Z., Qiu, Y., & Ling, J. Z. (2004). Transfer of metals from soil to vegetables in an area near a smelter in Nanning, China. Environment International, 30, 785–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ehsan, I. U., Perveen, S., Shah, Z., Nazif, W., Shah, S. S., & Shah, H. U. (2011). Study on accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables receiving sewage water. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 33, 220–226.Google Scholar
  17. FAO/WHO (1984). List of contaminants and their maximum levels in foods, Codex Alimentarius Commission.Google Scholar
  18. Fytianos, K., Katsianis, G., Triantafyllou, P., & Zachariadis, G. (2001). Accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables grown in an industrial area in relation to soil. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 67, 0423–0430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ge, K. (1992). The status of nutrient and meal of Chinese in the 1990s. Beijing: Beijing People’s Hygiene Press.Google Scholar
  20. Giongo, V., Galvão, S. R. d. S., Mendes, A. M. S., Gava, C. A. T, & Cunha, T. J. F. (2011). Soil organic carbon in the Brazilian semi-arid tropics. In: L. F. Leite, & B. E. Madari (Eds.), Soil organic matter: Brazilian perspectives. Dynamic Soil, Dynamic Plant 5:12–20.Google Scholar
  21. Gushiken, E. C. (1993). Effluent disposal through subsurface drip irrigation systems. Hawaii Water Pollution Control Association 15th Annual Conference. Honolulu, Hawaii.Google Scholar
  22. Hanson, B., & May, D. (2004). Effect of subsurface drip irrigation on processing tomato yield, water table depth, soil salinity, and profitability. Agricultural Water Management, 68, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Harmanescu, M., Alda, L., Bordean, D., Gogoasa, I., & Gergen, I. (2011). Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of vegetables grown in old mining area; a case study: Banat County, Romania. Chemistry Central Journal, 5, 64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. He, G., Zhang, L., Mol, A. P., Wang, T., & Lu, Y. (2014). Why small and medium chemical companies continue to pose severe environmental risks in rural China. Environmental Pollution, 185, 158–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Heidarpour, M., Mostafazadeh-Fard, B., Abedi Koupai, J., & Malekian, R. (2007). The effects of treated wastewater on soil chemical properties using subsurface and surface irrigation methods. Agricultural Water Management, 90, 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hinesly, T. D., Redborg, K. E., Pietz, R. I., & Ziegler, E. L. (1984). Cadmium and zinc uptake by corn (Zea mays L.) with repeated applications of sewage sludge. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 32, 155–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Huang, Z., Pan, X.-D., Wu, P.-G., Han, J.-L., & Chen, Q. (2014). Heavy metals in vegetables and the health risk to population in Zhejiang, China. Food Control, 36, 248–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. IWMI. (2000). Global water scarcity study. From http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/home/wsmap.htm.
  29. Iyengar, G., & Nair, P. (2000). Global outlook on nutrition and the environment: meeting the challenges of the next millennium. Science of the Total Environment, 249, 331–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jagtap, M. N., Kulkarni, M. V., & Puranik, P. R. (2010). Flux of heavy metal in soils irrigated with urban waste water. American Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, 8, 487–493.Google Scholar
  31. Jan, F. A., Ishaq, M., Khan, S., Ihsanullah, I., Ahmad, I., & Shakirullah, M. (2010). A comparative study of human health risks via consumption of food crops grown on wastewater irrigated soil (Peshawar) and relatively clean water irrigated soil (lower Dir). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 179, 612–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jin, K., Cornelis, W. M., Schiette, W., Lu, J. J., Buysse, T., Baert, G., Wu, H. J., Yao, Y., Cai, D. X., Jin, J. Y., De Neve, S., Hartmann, R., & Gabriels, D. (2008). Redistribution and loss of soil organic carbon by overland flow under various soil management practices on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Soil Use and Management, 24, 181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jung, K., Jang, T., Jeong, H., & Park, S. (2014). Assessment of growth and yield components of rice irrigated with reclaimed wastewater. Agricultural Water Management, 138, 17–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kabata-Pendias, A., & Pendias, H. (2001). Trace elements in soils and plants (p. 413). Florida: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  35. Kachenko, A., & Singh, B. (2006). Heavy metals contamination in vegetables grown in urban and metal smelter contaminated sites in Australia. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 169, 101–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kandelous, M. M., & Šimůnek, J. (2010). Numerical simulations of water movement in a subsurface drip irrigation system under field and laboratory conditions using HYDRUS-2D. Agricultural Water Management, 97, 1070–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kandelous, M. M., Šimůnek, J., van Genuchten, M. T., & Malek, K. (2011). Soil water content distributions between two emitters of a subsurface drip irrigation system. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 75, 488–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kelepertzis, E. (2014). Investigating the sources and potential health risks of environmental contaminants in the soils and drinking waters from the rural clusters in Thiva area (Greece). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 100, 258–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Khai, N. M., Tuan, P. T., Vinh, N. C., & Oborn, I. (2008). Effects of using wastewater as nutrient sources on soil chemical properties in peri‐urban agricultural systems. Journal of Science, Earth Sciences, 24, 87–95.Google Scholar
  40. Khan, S., Cao, Q., Zheng, Y. M., Huang, Y. Z., & Zhu, Y. G. (2008). Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environmental Pollution, 152, 686–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Khan, A., Javid, S., Muhmood, A., Mjeed, T., Niaz, A., & Majeed, A. (2013a). Heavy metal status of soil and vegetables grown on peri-urban area of Lahore District. Soil Science Society of Pakistan (SSSP), 32, 49–54.Google Scholar
  42. Khan, K., Lu, Y., Khan, H., Ishtiaq, M., Khan, S., Waqas, M., Wei, L., & Wang, T. (2013b). Heavy metals in agricultural soils and crops and their health risks in Swat District, northern Pakistan. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 58, 449–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lacatusu, R., & Lacatusu, A. (2008). Vegetable and fruits quality within heavy metals polluted areas in Romania. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 3, 115–129.Google Scholar
  44. Li, Q., Chen, Y., Fu, H., Cui, Z., Shi, L., Wang, L., & Liu, Z. (2012). Health risk of heavy metals in food crops grown on reclaimed tidal flat soil in the Pearl River Estuary, China. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 227–228, 148–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Liu, W. H., Zhao, J. Z., Ouyang, Z. Y., Soderlund, L., & Liu, G. H. (2005). Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metals distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Environment International, 31, 805–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Liu, X., Song, Q., Tang, Y., Li, W., Xu, J., Wu, J., Wang, F., & Brookes, P. C. (2013). Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in soil–vegetable system: a multi-medium analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 463–464, 530–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lu, Y., Song, S., Wang, R., Liu, Z., Meng, J., Sweetman, A. J., Jenkins, A., Ferrier, R. C., Li, H., Luo, W., & Wang, T. (2015). Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China. Environment International, 77, 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ma, H. M., & Chen, P. (2007). A systemic health risk assessment for the chromium cycle in Taiwan. Environmental International, 33, 206–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mohammad, M. J., & Mazahreh, N. (2003). Changes in soil fertility parameters in response to irrigation of forage crops with secondary treated wastewater. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 34, 1281–1294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mojiri, A., & Abdul Aziz, H. (2011). Effects of municipal wastewater on accumulation of heavy metals in soil and wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) with two irrigation methods. Romanian Agricultural Research, 28, 217–222.Google Scholar
  51. Naeem, M., & Rai, N. (2005). Determination of water requirements and response of wheat to irrigation at different soil moisture depletion levels. International Journal of Agricultural Biology, 7, 812–815.Google Scholar
  52. Najafi, P., & Tabatabaei, S. H. (2007). Effect of using subsurface drip irrigation and ET-HS model to increase WUE in irrigation of some crops. Irrigation and Drainage, 56, 477–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. NRCS. (2014). Keys to soil taxonomy (12th ed.). Washington, DC: USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service.Google Scholar
  54. Olawoyin, R., Oyewole, S. A., & Grayson, R. L. (2012). Potential risk effect from elevated levels of soil heavy metals on human health in the Niger delta. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 85, 120–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Oron, G., Campos, C., Gillerman, L., & Salgot, M. (1999). Wastewater treatment, renovation and reuse for agricultural irrigation in small communities. Agricultural Water Management, 38, 223–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Osman, K. A., Al-Humaid, A. I., Al-Rehiayani, S. M., & Al-Redhaiman, K. N. (2011). Estimated daily intake of pesticide residues exposure by vegetables grown in greenhouses in Al-Qassim region, Saudi Arabia. Food Control, 22, 947–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Oweis, T., & Hachum, A. (2009). Water harvesting for improved rainfed agriculture in the dry environments. In S. P. Wani, J. Rockstrom, & T. Oweis (Eds.), Rainfed agriculture: unlocking the potential (pp. 164–181). Oxfordshire: CABI.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pandey, R., Shubhashish, K., & Pandey, J. (2012). Dietary intake of pollutant aerosols via vegetables influenced by atmospheric deposition and wastewater irrigation. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 76, 200–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pescod, M. B. (1992). Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture, FAO, Irrigation and Drainage Paper, No. 47, 118 pp.Google Scholar
  60. Rattan, R., Datta, S., Chhonkar, P., Suribabu, K., & Singh, A. (2005). Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and groundwater: a case study. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 109, 310–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sekara, A., Poniedziałek, M., Ciura, J., & Jedrszczyk, E. (2005). Cadmium and lead accumulation and distribution in the organs of nine crops: implications for phytoremediation. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 14, 509–516.Google Scholar
  62. Shan, Y., & Wang, Q. (2012). Simulation of salinity distribution in the overlap zone with double-point-source drip irrigation using HYDRUS-3D. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 6, 238–247.Google Scholar
  63. Singh, A., Sharma, R. K., Agrawal, M., & Marshall, F. M. (2010). Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48, 611–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Skaggs, T., Trout, T., Šimůnek, J., & Shouse, P. (2004). Comparison of HYDRUS-2D simulations of drip irrigation with experimental observations. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 130, 304–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sonmez, S., Buyuktas, D., Okturen, F., & Citak, S. (2008). Assessment of different soil to water ratios (1:1, 1:2.5, 1:5) in soil salinity studies. Geoderma, 144, 361–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sridhara Chary, N., Kamala, C. T., & Samuel Suman Raj, D. (2008). Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 69, 513–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. StatSoft, I. (2011). STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 10. www.statsoft.com.
  68. Sun, H., An, T., Li, G., Qiao, M., & Wei, D. (2014). Distribution, possible sources, and health risk assessment of SVOC pollution in small streams in Pearl River Delta, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21, 10083–10095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Turkdogan, M., Kilicel, F., Kara, K., Tuncer, I., & Uygan, I. (2003). Heavy metals in soil, vegetables and fruits in the endemic upper gastrointestinal cancer region of Turkey. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 13, 175–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. USEPA. (2000). Handbook for non-cancer health effects evaluation. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  71. US-EPA. (2012). Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9, Preliminary remediation goals, from http://www.epa.gov/region9/superfund/prg/.
  72. Van Ginneken, L., Meers, E., Guisson, R., Ruttens, A., Elst, K., Tack, F. M. G., Vangronsveld, J., Diels, L., & Dejonghe, W. (2007). Phytoremediation for heavy metal‐contaminated soils combined with bioenergy production. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 15, 227–236.Google Scholar
  73. Walkley, A., & Black, I. A. (1934). An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37, 29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wang, X., Sato, T., Xing, B., & Tao, S. (2005). Health risks of heavy metals to the general public in Tianjin, China via consumption of vegetables and fish. Science of the Total Environment, 350, 28–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wang, F.-X., Kang, Y., & Liu, S.-P. (2006). Effects of drip irrigation frequency on soil wetting pattern and potato growth in North China Plain. Agricultural Water Management, 79, 248–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wang, J., Zhang, C. B., & Jin, Z. X. (2009). The distribution and phytoavailability of heavy metal fractions in rhizosphere soils of Paulowniu fortunei (seem) Hems near a Pb/Zn smelter in Guangdong, PR China. Geoderma, 148, 299–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wang, C., Chen, Y., Liu, J., Wang, J., Li, X., Zhang, Y., & Liu, Y. (2013). Health risks of thallium in contaminated arable soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater from a sulfuric acid plant in western Guangdong province, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 90, 76–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wei, B., & Yang, L. (2010). A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China. Microchemical Journal, 94, 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Williams, P. N., Lei, M., Sun, G., Huang, Q., Lu, Y., Deacon, C., et al. (2009). Occurrence and partitioning of cadmium, arsenic and lead in mine impacted paddy rice: Hunan, China. Environmental Science & Technology, 43, 637–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wongsasuluk, P., Chotpantarat, S., Siriwong, W., & Robson, M. (2014). Heavy metal contamination and human health risk assessment in drinking water from shallow groundwater wells in an agricultural area in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 36, 169–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Yang, Z., Liu, S., Zheng, D., & Feng, S. (2006). Effects of cadmium, zinc and lead on soil enzyme activities. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 18, 1135–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zema, D. A., Bombino, G., Andiloro, S., & Zimbone, S. M. (2012). Irrigation of energy crops with urban wastewater: effects on biomass yields, soils and heating values. Agricultural Water Management, 115, 55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhang, X., Zhuang, D., Ma, X., & Jiang, D. (2014). Esophageal cancer spatial and correlation analyses: water pollution, mortality rates, and safe buffer distances in China. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 24, 46–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zhao, Q., Wang, Y., Cao, Y., Chen, A., Ren, M., Ge, Y., et al. (2014). Potential health risks of heavy metals in cultivated topsoil and grain, including correlations with human primary liver, lung and gastric cancer, in Anhui province, Eastern China. Science of the Total Environment, 470, 340–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zhi-Fan, C., Ye, Z., Yuen, Z., Xu, Y., Jiejuan, Q., Qing, T., & Qing, Z. (2010). Health risks of heavy metals in sewage-irrigated soils and edible seeds in Langfang of Hebei province, China. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90, 314–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhuang, P., McBride, M. B., Xia, H., Li, N., & Li, Z. (2009). Health risk from heavy metals via consumption of food crops in the vicinity of Dabaoshan mine, South China. Science of the Total Environment, 407, 1551–1561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Young Researchers and Elite Club, Khorasgan (Isfahan) BranchIslamic Azad UniversityIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Department of Soil ManagementGhent UniversityGhentBelgium

Personalised recommendations