Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan

  • Sadaf Sadia Arain
  • Tasneem Gul Kazi
  • Hassan Imran Afridi
  • Kapil Dev Brahman
  • Naeemullah
  • Sumaira Khan
  • Abdul Haleem Panhwar
  • Muhammad Afzal Kamboh
  • Jamil R. Memon


The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12–15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001).


Cadmium Lead Blood Adolescents Vortex-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sadaf Sadia Arain
    • 1
  • Tasneem Gul Kazi
    • 1
  • Hassan Imran Afridi
    • 1
  • Kapil Dev Brahman
    • 1
  • Naeemullah
    • 1
  • Sumaira Khan
    • 1
  • Abdul Haleem Panhwar
    • 1
  • Muhammad Afzal Kamboh
    • 2
  • Jamil R. Memon
    • 3
  1. 1.National Center of Excellence in Analytical ChemistryUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversiti TeknologiJohor BahruMalaysia
  3. 3.Dr. M.A. Kazi Institute of ChemistryUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan

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