Daily dietary intakes of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium as determined by duplicate portion sampling combined with either instrumental analysis or the use of food composition tables, Shiraz, Iran

  • Samane Rahmdel
  • Seyedeh Maryam Abdollahzadeh
  • Seyed Mohammad Mazloomi
  • Siavash Babajafari


Estimation of essential and toxic element intakes is crucial to evaluate the risks of deficiency or toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate and also to compare the dietary intakes of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) by adults living in Shiraz, Iran, determined by two procedures: duplicate portion sampling of 21 hospital meals combined with either instrumental analysis (voltammetric measurement) or the use of food composition tables (FCTs). The level of exposure to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) was evaluated as well. The daily Zn intakes of both methods were not significantly different and were higher than the RDA values except the value measured by the instrumental analysis which was lower than the RDA established for a male adult. Daily intake of Cu determined by instrumental analysis was significantly lower and closer to RDA for adults compared with the value estimated by FCTs. The dietary intakes of Pb and Cd were 313 and 61 % of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs), respectively. The accuracy of two methods used for estimation of Zn intake was similar. In the case of Cu, the use of FCTs, in which the influence of environmental conditions and dietary habits of meal preparation is not taken into account, overestimated dietary intake. The risk of zinc deficiency was found in adult males. Moreover, the estimated intake of Pb, but not Cd, could be a cause of concern for Shiraz population. Thus, conducting regular periodic studies to assess the dietary intake of mentioned elements are recommended.


Duplicate potion sampling Daily dietary intake Food composition tables Essential elements Toxic elements 



This study was entirely financed by Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (project no. 92-6517). The authors express their gratitude to the technicians in the dietetic unit of Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to be declared.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samane Rahmdel
    • 1
  • Seyedeh Maryam Abdollahzadeh
    • 2
  • Seyed Mohammad Mazloomi
    • 3
  • Siavash Babajafari
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health, School of Veterinary MedicineShiraz UniversityShirazIran
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition, Student Research Committee, School of Nutrition and Food SciencesShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  3. 3.Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Nutrition and Food Sciences Research Center, School of Nutrition and Food SciencesShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran
  4. 4.Department of Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Nutrition and Food Sciences Research CenterShiraz University of Medical SciencesShirazIran

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