Occupants’ satisfaction toward building environmental quality: structural equation modeling approach

  • Syahrul Nizam Kamaruzzaman
  • C. O. Egbu
  • Emma Marinie Ahmad Zawawi
  • Saipol Bari Abd Karim
  • Chen Jia Woon


It is accepted that occupants who are more satisfied with their workplace’s building internal environment are more productive. The main objective of the study was to measure the occupants’ level of satisfaction and the perceived importance of the design or refurbishment on office conditions. The study also attempted to determine the factors affecting the occupants’ satisfaction with their building or office conditions. Post-occupancy evaluations were conducted using a structured questionnaire developed by the Built Environment Research Group at the University of Manchester, UK. Our questionnaires incorporate 22 factors relating to the internal environment and rate these in terms of “user satisfaction” and “degree of importance.” The questions were modified to reflect the specific setting of the study and take into consideration the local conditions and climate in Malaysia. The overall mean satisfaction of the occupants toward their office environment was 5.35. The results were measured by a single item of overall liking of office conditions in general. Occupants were more satisfied with their state of health in the workplace, but they were extremely dissatisfied with the distance away from a window. The factor analysis divided the variables into three groups, namely intrusion, air quality, and office appearance. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to determine which factor had the most significant influence on occupants’ satisfaction: appearance. The findings from the study suggest that continuous improvement in aspects of the building’s appearance needs to be supported with effective and comprehensive maintenance to sustain the occupants’ satisfaction.


Occupant satisfaction Internal factor environment Structural equation modeling Factor analysis 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the High Impact Research (HIR) grant, no. UM.C/625/1/HIR/ASH/013, established at the University of Malaya.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syahrul Nizam Kamaruzzaman
    • 1
  • C. O. Egbu
    • 2
  • Emma Marinie Ahmad Zawawi
    • 3
  • Saipol Bari Abd Karim
    • 4
  • Chen Jia Woon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Building Surveying, Faculty of the Built EnvironmentUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.School of the Built Environment and ArchitectureLondon South Bank UniversityLondonUK
  3. 3.Faculty of Architecture, Planning and SurveyingUniversiti Teknologi MARAShah AlamMalaysia
  4. 4.Department of Quantity Surveying, Faculty of the Built EnvironmentUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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