Seasonal and intradiurnal variation of airborne pollen concentrations in Bodrum, SW Turkey

  • Aycan Tosunoglu
  • Adem Bicakci


An aeropalynological study was performed in Bodrum, the famous tourism center in southwestern Turkey with a Hirst-type volumetric 7-day pollen and spore trap for 2 years (2007–2008). In Bodrum, 25,099 pollen grains as a mean value belonging to 41 taxa were recorded annually during the study period, and pollen grains from woody plant taxa had the largest atmospheric contribution of 86.99 % and 24 taxa. However, 17 herbaceous plant taxa constituted 12.82 % of the annual total pollen count, and 0.19 % were unidentified. An average annual pollen index of 22.66 % was recorded in March, despite differences from year to year. The highest pollen variability of 34 taxa was recorded in April and May. Predominant pollen types belonged to Cupressaceae/Taxaceae (42.73 %), Quercus (15.95 %), Pinus (9.78 %), Olea europaea (9.04 %), Poaceae (5.50 %), Betula (1.82 %), Pistacia (1.74 %), Morus (1.72 %), Urticaceae (1.46 %), and Plantago (1.28 %) and generated 91.03 % of the annual total. In total, 32.59 % of the mean annual total pollen index was recorded in the morning, and less pollen was recorded in the evening (18.71 %). Maximum pollen concentration was recorded between 11:00 and 12:00 a.m.


Airborne pollen Pollen concentrations Bodrum Turkey 


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

For this type of study, formal consent is not required. This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


  1. Abreu, I., Ribeiro, H., & Cunha, M. (2003). An aeropalynological study of the Porto region (Portugal). Aerobiologia, 19, 235–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abu-Dieyeh, M. H., & Ratrout, Y. S. (2012). Seasonal variation of airborne pollen grains in the atmosphere of Zarqa area, Jordan. Aerobiologia, 28, 527–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aira, M. J., Dopazo, A., & Jato, M. V. (2001). Aerobiological monitoring of Cupressaceae pollen in Santiago de Compostela (NW Iberian Peninsula) over six years. Aerobiologia, 17, 319–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alcazár, P., Galán, C., Carinańos, P., & Domínguez-Vilches, E. (1999). Diurnal variation of airborne pollen at two different heights. Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology, 9(2), 89–95.Google Scholar
  5. Alcázar, P., Stach, A., Nowak, M., & Galán, C. (2009). Comparison of airborne herb pollen types in Córdoba (Southwestern Spain) and Poznan (Western Poland). Aerobiologia, 25, 55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Altintas, D. U., Karakoc, D. G., Yilmaz, M., Pinar, M., Kendirli, S. G., & Cakan, H. (2004). Relationship Between Pollen Counts and Weather Variables in East-Mediterranean Coast of Turkey. Clinical and Developmental Immunology, 11(1), 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Altunoglu, M. K., Bicakci, A., Celenk, S., Canitez, Y., Malyer, H., & Sapan, N. (2008). Airborne Pollen Grains in Yalova, Turkey, 2004, Biologia. Section Botany, 63(5), 658–663.Google Scholar
  8. Andersen, T. B. (1991). A model to predict the beginning of the pollen season. Grana, 30, 269–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Asero, R., Mistrello, G., Roncarolo, D., & Casarini, M. (2000). Detection of allergens in plantain (Plantago lanceolata) pollen. Allergy, 55(11), 1059–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Atkinson, H., & Larsson, K. A. (1990). A 10-year record of the arboreal airborne pollen in stockholm Sweden. Grana, 29, 229–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ballero, M., & Maxia, A. (2003). Pollen spectrum variations in the atmosphere of Cagliari, Italy. Aerobiologia, 19, 251–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barletta, B., Afferni, C., Tinghino, R., Mari, A., Di Felice, G., & Pini, C. (1996). Cross-reactivity between Cupressus arizonica and Cupressus sempervirens pollen extracts. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 98(4), 797–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Basak, P., Arayata, R., & Brensilver, J. (2011). Prevalence of specific aeroallergen sensitivity on skin prick test in patients with allergic rhinitis in Westchester County. The Internet Journal of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, 6(2), 2. doi: 10.5580/1e9f.Google Scholar
  14. Bicakci, A. (2006). Analysis of airborne pollen fall in Sakarya, Turkey. Biologia, 61(4), 457–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bicakci, A., Akkaya, A., Malyer, H., Turgut, E., & Sahin, U. (2000a). Airborne pollen grains of Burdur, Turkey. Acta Botanica Sinica, 42, 864–867.Google Scholar
  16. Bicakci, A., Akkaya, A., Malyer, H., Unlu, M., & Sapan, N. (2000b). Pollen calendar of Isparta, Turkey. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 48, 67–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bicakci, A., Ergün, S., Tatlidil, S., Malyer, H., Ozyurt, S., Akkaya, A., & Sapan, N. (2002). Airborne Pollen Grains of Afyon, Turkey. Acta Botanica Sinica, 44(11), 1371–1375.Google Scholar
  18. Bicakci, A., Tatlidil, S., Sapan, N., Malyer, H., & Canitez, Y. (2003). Airborne pollen grains in Bursa, Turkey, 1999-2000. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 10, 31–36.Google Scholar
  19. Bicakci, A., Dundar Koc, R., Tatlidil, S., & Benlioglu, O. N. (2004). Analysis of airborne pollen fall in Usak, Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 36, 711–717.Google Scholar
  20. Bilisik, A., Bicakci, A., Malyer, H., & Sapan, N. (2008a). Analysis of Airborne Pollen Concentrations in Fethiye-Mugla, Turkey. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 17(6), 640–646.Google Scholar
  21. Bilisik, A., Yenigun, A., Bicakci, A., Eliacik, K., Canitez, Y., Malyer, H., & Sapan, N. (2008b). An Observation Study of Airborne Pollen Fall in Didim (S-W Turkey); in years 2004-2005. Aerobiologia, 24, 61–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bousquet, J., Cour, P., Guerin, B., & Michel, F. B. (1984). Allergy in the Mediterranean area I. Pollens counts and pollinosis of Montpellier. Clinical Allergy, 14, 249–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Celenk, S., Bicakci, A., Tamay, Z., Guler, N., Altunoglu, M. K., Canitez, Y., Malyer, H., & Sapan, N. (2010). Airborne pollen in European and Asian parts of Istanbul. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 164, 391–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Çeter, T., Pinar, N. M., Güney, K., Yildiz, A., Aşçı, B., & Smith, M. (2012). A 2-year Aeropalynological Survey of Allergenic Pollen in the Atmosphere of Kastamonu, Turkey. Aerobiologia, 28, 355–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Charpin, J., Surinyach, R., & Frankland, A. W. (1974). Atlas of European Allergenic Pollens. Paris: Sandos Editions.Google Scholar
  26. Clot, B. (2001). Airborne birch pollen in Neuchâtel (Switzerland): onset, peak and daily patterns. Aerobiologia, 17, 25–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Corden, J., & Wendy, M. (1999). A study of Quercus pollen in the Derby area, UK. Aerobiologia, 15, 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cvitanovic, S., Znaor, L., Perisic, D., & Grbic, D. (2004). Hypersesitivity to pollen allergens on the Adriatic Coast. Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju, 55, 147–154.Google Scholar
  29. D’Amato, G. (1998). Pollen Allergy in the Mediterranean Area. Revista Portuguesa de Imunoalergologia, 6(2), 96–98.Google Scholar
  30. D’Amato, G., Cecchi, L., Bonini, S., Nunes, C., Annesi-Maesano, I., Behrendt, H., Liccardi, G., Popov, T., & van Cauwenberge, P. (2007). Allergenic pollen and pollen allergy in Europe. Allergy, 62, 976–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. D'Amato, G., & Lobefalo, G. (1989). Allergenic pollens in the southern Mediterranean area. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 83, 116–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Díaz de La Guardia, C., Alba, F., Girón, F., & Sabariego, S. (1998). An aerobiological study of Urticaceae pollen in the city of Granada (S. Spain): Correlation with meteorological parameters. Grana, 37(5), 298–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Diaz de la Guardia, C., Alba, F., Trigo, M. D. M., Galán, C., Ruíz, L., & Sabariego, S. (2003). Aerobiological analysis of Olea europaea L. pollen in different localities of southern Spain. Grana, 42(4), 234–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Docampo, S., Recio, M., Trigo, M. M., Melgar, M., & Cabezudo, B. (2007). Risk of pollen allergy in Nerja (southern Spain): a pollen calendar. Aerobiologia, 23, 189–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Domínguez-Vilches, E., García-Pantaleón, F., Galán Soldevilla, C., Guerra Pasadas, F., & Villamandos de la Torre, F. (1993). Variations in the concentrations of airborne Olea pollen and associated pollinosis in Córdoba (Spain): a study of the 10 year period 1982–1991. Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology, 3(3), 121–129.Google Scholar
  36. Egger, C., Focke, M., Bircher, A. J., Scherer, K., Mothes-Luksch, N., Horak, F., & Valenta, R. (2008). The allergen profile of beech and oak pollen. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 38, 1688–1696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Emberlin, J., & Norris-Hill, J. (1991). Annual, daily and diurnal variation of Urticaceae pollen of North-Central London. Aerobiologia, 7, 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Emberlin, J. C., Norris-Hill, J., & Bryant, R. H. (1990). A calendar for tree pollen in London. Grana, 29, 301–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Eriksson, N. E., & Holmen, A. (1996). Skin prick test with standardized extracts of inhalant allergens in 7099 adult patients with asthma or rhinitis crosssensitizations and relationship to age, sex, month of birth and year of testing. Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology, 6, 36–46.Google Scholar
  40. Felice, G. D., Caiaffa, M. F., Bariletto, G., Afferni, C., Paola, R. D., Mari, A., Palumbo, S., Tinghino, R., Sallusto, F., Tursi, A., Macchia, L., & Pini, C. (1994). Allergens of Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica) pollen: Characterization of the pollen extract and identification of the allergenic components. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 94, 547–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Florvaag, E., Elsayed, S., & Apold, J. (1982). Comparative studies on tree pollen allergens: purification and some characteristics of the major allergen. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology, 67, 49–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fornaciari, M., Bricchi, E., Greco, F., Fascini, D., Giannoni, C., Frenguelli, G., & Romano, B. (1992). Daily variations of Urticaceae pollen count and influence of meteoclimatic parameters in East Perugia during 1989. Aerobiologia, 8, 407–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Frenguelli, G., Tedeschini, E., Veronesi, F., & Bricchi, E. (2002). Airborne pine (Pinus spp.) pollen in the atmosphere of Perugia (Central Italy): Behaviour of pollination in the two last decades. Aerobiologia, 18, 223–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Galán, C., Cariñanos, P., García-Mozo, H., Alcázar, P., & Domínguez-Vilches, E. (2001). Model for forecasting Olea europaea L. airborne pollen in South-West Andalusia, Spain. International Journal of Biometeorology, 45, 59–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Galán C, Cariñanos P, Alcázar P & Dominguez-Vilches E. (2007). Spanish Aerobiology Network (REA) Management and Quality Manual. Córdoba, Spain: Servicio de Publicaciones Universidad de Córdoba.Google Scholar
  46. García-Mozo, H., Galán, C., Cariǹanos, P., Alcazar, P., Méndez, J., Vendrell, M., Alba, F., Sáenz, C., Fernández, D., Cabezudo, B., & Domínguez, E. (1999). Variations in the Quercus sp. pollen season at selected sites in Spain. Polen, 10, 59–69.Google Scholar
  47. Garcia-Mozo, H., Dominguez-Vilches, E., & Galán, C. (2007). Airborne Allergenic Pollen in Natural Areas: Hornachuelos Natural Park, Cordóba, Southern Spain. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 14, 63–69.Google Scholar
  48. Giner, M. M., Garcia, J. S. C., & Camacho, C. N. (2002). Seasonal fluctuations of the airborne pollen spectrum in Murcia (SE Spain). Aerobiologia, 18, 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gioulekas, D., Balafoutis, C., Damialis, A., Papakosta, D., Gioulekas, G., & Patakas, D. (2004). Fifteen-year records of airborne allergenic pollen and meteorological parameters in Thessaloniki, Greece. International Journal of Biometeorology, 48, 128–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. González Minero, F. J., & Candau, P. (1997). Olea europaea airborne pollen in southern Spain. Annals of Allergy Asthma Immunology, 78, 278–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. González Minero, F. J., Candau, P., Tomas, C., & Morales, J. (1997). Variación anual y estacional del polen de Urticaceae en el aire de Sevilla y su relación con los factores meteorológicos. Polen, 8, 69–77.Google Scholar
  52. González-Minero, F. J., Candau, P., Morales, J., & Tomas, C. (1998). Forecasting olive production based on ten consecutive years of monitoring airborne pollen in Andalusia (southern Spain). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 69, 201–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Green, B. J., Yli-Panula, E., Dettmann, M., Rutherford, S., & Simpson, R. (2003). Airborne Pinus pollen in the atmosphere of Brisbane, Australia and relationships with meteorological parameters. Aerobiologia, 19, 47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Grewling, L., Jackowiak, B., & Smith, M. (2014). Variations in Quercus sp. pollen seasons (1996–2011). in Poznaǹ, Poland, in relation to meteorological parameters. Aerobiologia, 30, 149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gucel, S., Guvensen, A., Ozturk, M., & Celik, A. (2012). Analysis of airborne pollen fall in Nicosia (Cyprus). Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 185(1), 157–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gutiérrez, A. M., Saenz, C., Cervigón, P., Alcázar, P., Dopazo, A., Ruiz, L., Trigo, M. M., Valencia, R., & Vendrell, M. (1999). Comparative Study of the Presence of Aeropollen from Plantago sp. at Several Locations in Spain. Polen, 10, 111–122.Google Scholar
  57. Guvensen, A., & Ozturk, M. (2003). Airborne Pollen Calendar of Izmir-Turkey. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 10, 37–44.Google Scholar
  58. Häkkinen, R. (1999). Statistical evaluation of bud development theories: application to bud burst of Betula pendula leaves. Tree Physiology, 19, 613–618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hallsdóttir, M. (1999). Birch pollen abundance in Reykjavik, Iceland. Grana, 38, 368–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Harris, R. M., & German, D. F. (1985). The incidence of pine pollen reactivity in an allergic atopic population. Annals of Allergy, 55(5), 678–679.Google Scholar
  61. Hidalgo, P. J., Galán, C., & Domínguez, E. (2003). Male phenology of three species of Cupressus: correlation with airborne pollen. Trees, 17, 336–344.Google Scholar
  62. Ince, A. (1994). Kırıkkale atmosferindeki allerjik polenlerin incelenmesi. Turkish Journal of Botany, 18, 43–56.Google Scholar
  63. Inceoglu, O., Pınar, N. M., Sakıyan, N., & Sorkun, K. (1994). Airborne Pollen Concentration in Ankara, Turkey. 1990-1993. Grana, 33, 158–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jäger, S. (1990). Tageszeitliche Verteilung und langjährige Trends bei allergiekompetenten Pollen. Allergologie, 13, 159–182.Google Scholar
  65. Käpylä, M. (1984). Diurnal variation of tree pollen in the air in Finland. Grana, 23, 167–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kaya, Z., & Aras, A. (2004). Airborne pollen calendar of Bartin, Turkey. Aerobiologia, 20, 63–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Keynan, N., Geller-Bernstein, C., Waisel, Y., Bejerano, A., Shomer-Ilan, A., & Tamir, R. (1987). Positive skin tests to pollen extracts of four species of Pistacia in Israel. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 17(3), 243–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Keynan, N., Tamir, R., Waisel, Y., Reshef, A., Spitz, E., Shomer-Ilan, A., & Geller-Bernstein, C. (1997). Allergenicity of the pollen of Pistacia. Allergy, 52, 323–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Krilis, S., Baldo, B. A., & Basten, A. (1985). Detailed analysis of allergen specific IgE responses in 341 allergic patients. Associations between allergens and between allergen groups and clinical diagnoses. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine, 15, 421–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lacey, J., & Dutkiewicz, J. (1994). Bioaerosols and occupational lung disease. Journal of Aerosol Science, 25, 1371–1404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Larenas-Linnemann, D. E., Fogelbach, G. A., Alatorre, A. M., Cruz, A. A., Colín, D. D., Pech, J. A., Hernández, A. M., Impérial, D. A., del Prado, M. L., Zapien, F. J., Huerta, R. E., & Martell, J. A. (2011). Patterns of skin prick test positivity in allergic patients: Usefulness of a nationwide SPT chart review. Allergologia Et Immunopathologia, 39(6), 330–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Liccardi, G., D’Amato, M., & D’Amato, G. (1996). Oleaceae pollinosis: A Review. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 111, 210–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Linkosalo, T., Carter, T. R., Häkkinen, R., & Hari, P. (2000). Predicting spring phenology and frost damage risk of Betula spp. under climatic warming: a comparison of two model. Tree Physiology, 20, 1175–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Marcos, C., Rodriguez, F. J., Luna, I., Jato, V., & González, R. (2001). Pinus pollen aerobiology and clinical sensitization in northwest Spain. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 87(1), 39–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Molina, R. T., Palacios, I. S., Rodríguez, A. F. M., Munóz, J. T., & Corchero, A. M. (2001). Environmental factors affecting airborne pollen concentration in anemophilous species of Plantago. Annals of Botany, 87, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Murioz, F. J., Delgado, J., Palma, J. L., Giménez, M. J., Monteseirín, F. J., & Conde, J. (1995). Airborne contact urticaria due to mulberry (Morus alba) pollen. Contact Dermatitis, 32, 61.Google Scholar
  77. Myking, T., & Heide, O. M. (1995). Dormancy release and chilling requirement of buds of latitudinal ecotypes of Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Tree Physiology, 15, 697–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nitiu, D. S. (2006). Aeropalynologic analysis of La Plata City (Argentina) during 3-year period. Aerobiologia, 22, 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Norris-Hill, J. (1999). The diurnal variation of Poaceae pollen concentrations in a rural area. Grana, 38(5), 301–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Papa, G., Romano, A., Quaratino, D., Di Fonso, M., Viola, M., Artesani, M. C., Sernia, S., Di Gioacchino, M., & Venuti, A. (2001). Prevalence of sensitization to Cupressus sempervirens: a 4 year retrospective study. The Science of the Total Enviroment, 270, 83–87.Google Scholar
  81. Pérez-Badia, R., Vaquero, C., Sardinero, S., Galán, C., & García-Mozo, H. (2010). Intradiurnal Variations of Allergenic Tree Pollen in the Atmosphere of Toledo (Central Spain). Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 17, 269–275.Google Scholar
  82. Pérez-Badia, R., Rapp, A., Vaquero, C., & Fernández-González, F. (2011). Aerobiological Study in East-Central Iberian Peninsula: Pollen Diversity and Dynamics for Major Taxa. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 18, 99–111.Google Scholar
  83. Peternel, R., Čulig, J., Mitić, B., Vukušić, I., & Šostar, Z. (2003). Analysis of airborne pollen concentrations in Zagreb, Croatia, 2002. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 10, 107–112.Google Scholar
  84. Puc, M. (2009). Meteorological Factors and Pollen Season Dynamics of Selected Herbaceous Plants in Szczecin, 2004-2008. Acta Agrobotanica, 62(2), 97–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rizzi Longo, L. R., Sauli, M. P., & Ganis, P. (2004). Aerobiology of Urticaceae pollen in Trieste (NE Italy). Aerobiologia, 20, 53–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rodríguez-Rajo, F. J., Frenguelli, G., & Jato, M. V. (2003). Effect of air temperature on forecasting the start of the Betula pollen season at two contrasting sites in the South f Europe (1995-2001). International Journal of Biometeorology, 47, 117–125.Google Scholar
  87. Sánchez Mesa, J. A., Smith, M., Emberlin, J., Allitt, U., Caulton, E., & Galán, C. (2003). Characteristics of grass pollen seasons in areas of southern Spain and the United Kingdom. Aerobiologia, 19, 243–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Spieksma, F. T. M. (1991). Regional European pollen calendars. In G. D’Amato, F. T. M. Spieksma, & S. Bonini (Eds.), Allergenic Pollen and Pollinosis in Europe (pp. 49–65). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  89. Spieksma, F. T. M., Corden, J. M., Detandt, M., Millington, W. M., Nikkels, H., Nolard, N., Schoenmakers, C. H. H., Wachter, R., de Weger, L. A., Willems, R., & Emberlin, J. (2003). Quantitative trends in annual totals of five common airborne pollen types (Betula, Quercus, Poaceae, Urtica, and Artemisia), at five pollen-monitoring stations in western Europe. Aerobiologia, 19, 171–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Targow, A. M. (1971). The mulberry tree: a neglected factor in respiratory allergy in southern California. Annals of Allergy, 29, 318–322.Google Scholar
  91. Tosunoglu, A., Bicakci, A., Malyer, H., & Sapan, N. (2009). Airborne Pollen Fall in Koycegiz Specially Protected Area (SW Turkey). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 18(10), 1860–1865.Google Scholar
  92. Tosunoglu, A., Altunoglu, M. K., Bicakci, A., Kilic, O., Gonca, T., Yilmazer, I., Saatcioglu, G., Akkaya, A., Celenk, S., Canitez, Y., Malyer, H., & Sapan, N. (2014). Atmospheric pollen concentrations in Antalya. South Turkey. Aerobiologia. doi: 10.1007/s10453-014-9350-6.Google Scholar
  93. Tosunoglu, A., Babayigit, S., & Bıçakçı, A. (2015). Aeropalynological survey in Büyükorhan, Bursa. Turkish Journal of Botany, 39(1), 40–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Trigo, M. M., Cabezudo, B., Recio, M., & Toro, F. J. (1996). Annual, daily and diurnal variation of Urticaceae airborne pollen in Málaga (Spain). Aerobiologia, 12, 85–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Tuzlacı E (2000). Bodrum Yarımadası'nın Bitkileri Hakkında Bazı Araştırmalar, (Eds.) İ. Çalış, T. Ersöz, A. A. Başaran, New Trends and Methods in Natural Products’ Research. Proceedings of XIIth International Symposium on Plant Originated Crude Drugs, s. 249-263, Ankara, Turkey, May 20-22, 1998Google Scholar
  96. Vaquero, C., Rodríguez-Torres, A., Rojo, J., & Pérez-Badia, R. (2012). Airborne pollen of allergenic herb species in Toledo (Spain). Environmental Monitoring Assessment. doi: 10.1007/s10661-012-2556-6.Google Scholar
  97. Waisel, Y., & Alon, A. (1980). Trees of the land of Israel (pp. 78–85). Tel Aviv: Nature Conservation Authority.Google Scholar
  98. Wallner, M., Erler, A., Hauser, M., Klinglmayr, E., Gadermaier, G., Vogel, L., Mari, A., Bohle, B., Briza, P., & Ferreira, F. (2009). Immunologic characterization of isoforms of Car b 1 and Que a 1, the major hornbeam and oak pollen allergens. Allergy, 64, 452–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Watson, H. K., & Constable, D. W. (1991). Allergenic significance of Plantago pollen. In S. Bonini (Ed.), D'amato G, Spieksma FthM (pp. 132–134). Blackwell Scientific: Allergenic pollen and pollinosis in Europe.Google Scholar
  100. Weryszko-Chmielewska, E., & Piotrowska, K. (2004). Airborne pollen calendar of Lublin, Poland. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 11, 91–97.Google Scholar
  101. Zohary, M. A. (1972). Monographical study of the genus Pistacia. Palestine Journal of Botany, 5, 187–228.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Science & Arts FacultyUludag UniversityNiluferTurkey

Personalised recommendations