Health risks associated with pesticide residues in water, sediments and the muscle tissues of Catla catla at Head Balloki on the River Ravi
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A study of the levels of six pesticide residues (endosulfan, carbofuran, cypermethrin, profenofos, triazophos, and deltamethrin) was conducted to determine possible environmental and health risks in surface waters, sediment, and fish Catla catla. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The total concentration of pesticides in water, sediment, and fish ranged from 0.005 to 3.17 μg/l, 0.61 to 23.06 ng/g dry weight, and 0.35 to 19.15 μg/g lipid-normalized units, respectively. According to the concentrations and detection frequencies, endosulfan and profenofos were the most dominant pesticides recorded in fish tissue and sediment samples. Profenofos and cypermethrin, meanwhile, were the most abundant pesticides recorded in water samples at these sites. Cypermethrin and triazophos were not detected in the sediment samples. The concentration of endosulfan, carbofuran, and deltamethrin were higher than the permissible limits for fish set by international agencies and pose a potential ecological risk to the aquatic ecosystem and a consequent hazard to human health.
KeywordsFish GC-ECD River Ravi Pesticides Sediments Water
The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this Research group No. RG-1435-012.
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