Anthropogenic impact on water chemistry and benthic macroinvertebrate associated changes in a southern Nigeria stream

  • Francis O. Arimoro
  • O. Nelson Odume
  • Samson I. Uhunoma
  • Augustine O. Edegbene


The Ogba River in southern Nigeria is an important water resource for its riparian communities. This study evaluates impact of anthropogenic influences on the Ogba River using water chemistry and macroinvertebrate data sets obtained over a period of 6 months between January and June 2012. Four stations, stations 1–4, characterised by various human activities were chosen along the river. Organic wastes from domestic and industrial sources were the major point sources of pollutants. Station 2 where the municipal wastewater drains into the river had elevated values of flow velocity, BOD5, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate and sodium. Based on the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), sulphate, nitrate and phosphate were the main factors that help to shape the macroinvertebrate assemblage structure of the Ogba River. Macroinvertebrates clustered strongly by stations than by seasons indicating that water quality differences between the stations were responsible for the observed differences in the biotic assemblage. The preponderance of naidid oligochaetes, baetid nymphs and certain tolerant dipteran taxa including chironomids and ceratopogonids at all four stations was an indication that the entire water body was stressed. The odonates were the single most abundant taxa; their dominance could be attributed to the vegetative nature of the stream, favouring odonate colonisation. Overall, the responses of macroinvertebrates to stress were reflected by the different assemblage structures recorded at the four study stations. Substrate and microhabitat obliteration and poor water quality appeared to be the factors responsible for the observed assemblage structure in the Ogba River.


Physicochemical variables EPT organisms Pollution-tolerant taxa Human activities Nutrients 



TWAS-DFG 2014 sponsorship programme for collaboration study of the first author in Germany is highly appreciated. We are grateful to Mr. Emmanuel Ogbonna and Mr. Itivere Ibori for the laboratory and field assistance. Also, thanks to the two anonymous reviewers for the valuable comments that greatly improved the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francis O. Arimoro
    • 1
  • O. Nelson Odume
    • 2
  • Samson I. Uhunoma
    • 3
  • Augustine O. Edegbene
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Applied Hydrobiology Unit, Department of Biological SciencesFederal University of TechnologyMinnaNigeria
  2. 2.Unilever Centre for Environmental Water Quality, Institute for Water ResearchRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa
  3. 3.Department of Animal and Environmental BiologyDelta State UniversityAbrakaNigeria
  4. 4.Department of Biological Sciences (Applied Hydrobiology and Fisheries Unit)Jigawa State UniversityKafin HausaNigeria

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