Dissipation behaviour of spinosad in polyhouse grown tomato under mid-hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh, India

  • Lokender Kashyap
  • Duni Chand Sharma
  • Anil


An established analytical method was further standardized for the estimation of spinosad residue in tomato grown under naturally ventilated polyhouse situated in mid-hills of Himachal Pradesh, India. Spinosad was sprayed on hybrid tomato cv. Avtar at the recommended and double the recommended dosages at 15 and 30 g a.i. ha−1, respectively, to control the lepidopterous pests and the residue were analysed from tomato fruits at different intervals after second spray. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile-water mixture (8:2), partitioned into dichloromethane, methanol and anhydrous sodium hydroxide. The extracts were concentrated under vacuum and cleaned up with silica solid phase extraction cartridge. Further, the samples were analysed in high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with UV/visible detector at λ = 250 nm and C18 reversed-phase column. Consistent recoveries ranging from 80.6 ± 1.1 to 91.4 ± 1.2 % were observed when samples were spiked at fortification range of 0.01 to 0.20 mg kg−1. The limit of quantification of the method was worked out to be 0.02 mg kg−1. The half-life values of spinosad were determined to be 1.20 and 1.60 days at recommended and double the recommended dosage, respectively. The safety interval for spinosad sprayed tomato fruit was determined to be 1.92 and 3.88 days at application rate of 15 and 30 g a.i. ha−1, respectively.


Tomato Spinosad Dissipation HPLC Half-life 


  1. Akbar, M. F., Haq, M. A., Parveen, F., & Yasmin, N. (2010). Determination of synthetic and bio-insecticides residues during aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) control on cabbage crop through high performance liquid chromatography. Pakistan Entomologist, 32, 155–162.Google Scholar
  2. Elzen, G. W., Elzen, P. J., & King, E. G. (1998). Laboratory toxicity of insecticide residues to Orius insidiosus, Geocoris punctipes, Hippodamia convergens and Chrysoperla carnea. Southwestern Entomologist, 23, 335–342.Google Scholar
  3. Hoskins, W. M. (1961). Mathematical treatment of the rate of loss of pesticide residues. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 9, 163–168.Google Scholar
  4. Krist, H. A., Michel, K. H., Mynderse, J. S., Choco, E. H., Yao, R. C., Nakatsukasa, W. M., Boeck, L. D., Occlowitz, J., Paschel, J. W., Deeter, J. B., & Thompson, G. D. (1992). Discovery, isolation and structure elucidation of a family of structurally unique fermentation derived tetracyclic macrolide. In D. J. Baker, J. G. Fenyes, & J. J. Steffens (Eds.), Synthesis and chemistry of agrochemicals III (pp. 214-215). Washington: American Chemical Society.Google Scholar
  5. Mandal, K., Jyot, G., & Singh, B. (2009). Dissipation kinetics of spinosad on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.) under subtropical conditions of Punjab, India. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 83, 808–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Sood, P., & Sood, A. K. (2012). Management of insect-pests in vegetable crops under protected conditions. In P. K. Mehta, A. K. Sood, P. C. Sharma, & D. K. Banyal (Eds.), ICAR short course on pest management in high-value crops under protected environment (pp.181-191). Palampur, India: Department of Entomology, CSK Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalya.Google Scholar
  7. Papasolomontos, A. (2004). Integrated production and protection in the Mediterranean region under protected cultivation. Cahiers Options Mediterranean, 31, 413–424.Google Scholar
  8. Perdikis, D., Kapaxidi, E., & Papadoulis, G. (2008). Biological control of insect and mite pests in greenhouse solanaceous crops. European Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology, 2, 125–144.Google Scholar
  9. Saunders, D. G., & Bret, D. L. (1997). Fate of spinosad in the environment. Down to Earth, 52(1), 14–20.Google Scholar
  10. Sharma, A., Srivastava, A., Ram, B., & Srivastava, P. C. (2007). Dissipation behaviour of spinosad insecticide in soil, cabbage and cauliflower under subtropical conditions. Pest Management Science, 63, 1141–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Sharma, A., Srivastava, A., Ram, B., & Srivastava, P. C. (2008). Dissipation behavior of spinosad insecticide in chilli and soil. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 5, 49–52.Google Scholar
  12. Singh, S., & Battu, R. S. (2012). Dissipation kinetics of spinosad in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata). Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 94, 319–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sparks, T. C., Thompson, G. D., Larson, L. L., Kirst, H. A., Jantz, O. K., Worden, T. V., Hertlein, M. B., & Busacca, J. D. (1995). Biological characteristics of the spinosyns: new naturally derived insect control agents. Proceedings of the 1995 Beltwide Cotton Conference (pp. 903–907). Memphis, Tennessee: National Cotton Council of America.Google Scholar
  14. Tomkins, A. R., Holland, P. T., Thomson, C., Willson, D. J., & Malcolm, P. C. (1999). Residual life of spinosad on kiwi fruit-Biological and chemical studies. Proceedings of 52 nd New Zealand Plant Protection Conference 1999 (pp. 94–97). Auckland: The New Zealand Plant Protection Society Inc.Google Scholar
  15. West, S. D., Yeh, L. T., Schwedler, D. A., Turner, L. G., Thomas, A. D., & Duebelbeis, D. O. (2000). Determination of spinosad and its metabolite in food and environmental matrices. 1. High-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 5131–5137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. WHO/FAO. (2013). Codex Pesticides Residues in Food Online Database. accessed 16 June 2014.
  17. Zywitz, D., Anastassiades, M., & Scherbaum, E. (2004). Simultaneous determination of macrocyclic lactone insecticides in fruits and vegetables using LC-MSMS. Deutsche Lebensmittel Rundschau, 100, 140–150.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant ProtectionLovely Professional UniversityJalandharIndia
  2. 2.Department of EntomologyCSK HPKVPalampur (Kangra)India
  3. 3.Department of EntomologyBihar Agricultural UniversitySabour (Bhagalpur)India

Personalised recommendations