Analysis on the threats and spatiotemporal distribution pattern of security in World Natural Heritage Sites
- 337 Downloads
World Natural Heritage Sites (WNHS) are treasures that need human protection and invite appreciation, which makes conservation of WNHS an urgent task. This paper assesses where in the world threats are most pressing and which WNHS require emergency assistance. Using an analysis of “hot spots” and inverse distance weighting, it finds that Africa is the region where WNHS are least secure. Reports of the state of the conservation of WNHS describe the many threats that exist. Of these, management activities and institutional factors are the primary threats. The paper suggests relevant measures to improve the WNHS security.
KeywordsWorld Natural Heritage Sites Threat Security World Heritage Centre
Based on the data obtained from the WHC, the security of WNHS in the world was analyzed in this paper. We appreciate the work that the WHC has been doing to protect the WHS, and we thank the WHC sincerely. This paper is sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41301163) and its program sponsoring doctors in the western region of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XBBS201210). We also appreciate the suggestions of all anonymous reviewers.
- Burton, T. A., Smith, S. J., & Cowley, E. R. (2011). Riparian area management: multiple indicator monitoring (MIM) of stream channels and streamside vegetation. Technical Reference 1737–23. BLM/OC/ST-10/003 + 1737 + REV (pp. 155). Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, National Operations CenterGoogle Scholar
- De Smith, M. J., Goodchild, M. F., & Longley, P. (2007). Geospatial analysis: a comprehensive guide to principles, techniques and software tools. Winchelsea: Winchelsea Press. http://www.spatialanalysisonline.com
- Duke, N. C., Bell, A. M., Pederson, D. K., Roelfsema, C. M., & Bengtson Nash, S. (2005). Herbicides implicated as the cause of severe mangrove dieback in the Mackay region, NE Australia: consequences for marine plant habitats of the GBR World Heritage Area. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 51(1–4), 308–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Graves, P., Atkinson, A., & Goldbach, M. (2006). Travel and transportation management: planning and conducting route inventories. Technical Reference 9113–1, BLM/WO/ST-06/007 + 9113 (pp. 51). Denver, CO: Bureau of Land Management.Google Scholar
- Patry, M., Bassett C., & Leclerq B. (2005). The state of conservation of World Heritage forests. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity-43-2.pdf. Accessed 15 January, 2013.
- Topay, M. (2007). The importance of climate for recreational planning of rural areas; case study of Muğla Province, Turkey. 3rd International Workshop on Climate, Tourism and Recreation, 19–22.Google Scholar
- UNESCO. (1972). Convention concerning the protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris: United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. http://whc.unesco.org/en/conventiontext/. Accessed 15 January, 2013.
- UNESCO. (2013). Operational guidelines for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/guidelines/. Accessed 15 January, 2013.
- Wyman, S., Bailey, D., Borman, M., Cote, S., Eisner, J., Elmore, W., et al. (2006). Riparian area management: grazing management processes and strategies for riparian-wetland areas (Technical Reference 1737–20. BLM/ST/ST-06/002+1737 (pp. 105). Denver, CO: U.S.). Bureau of Land Management, National Science and Technology Center: Department of the Interior.Google Scholar