Metal concentrations in selected brands of canned fish in Nigeria: estimation of dietary intakes and target hazard quotients
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The concentrations of metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, and Zn) were determined in selected brands of canned mackerel, sardine, and tuna in Nigeria with a view to providing information on the dietary intakes of metals and lifelong health hazards associated with the consumption of these products. The concentrations of metals were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The mean concentrations of metals in canned mackerel, sardine, and tuna were found as 0.04–0.58, 0.06–0.44, 0.32–0.83 μg/g for Cd; 0.05–2.82, 0.70–2.98, 0.23–2.56 μg/g for Pb, 1.33–11.33, <0.20–17.53, nd–34.2 μg/g for Ni, 0.49–3.79, 0.22–1.89, 0.66–14.39 μg/g for Cr, 0.33–0.92, 0.03–1.51, <0.08–1.31 μg/g for Cu, 0.11–2.17, nd–0.75, 0.14–0.50 μg/g for Co, 6.45–26.90, 6.06–53.54, 3.06–95.78 μg/g for Fe, 2.30–3.84, 0.95–21.78, 1.65–2.33 μg/g for Mn, 1.15–7.19, 3.60–17.88, 1.21–5.35 μg/g for Zn, respectively. The mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe in some of these brands of canned fish were above their permissible limits while other metals occurred at levels below their permissible limits. The estimated daily intakes of metals from consumption of 20.8 g fish per day by a 60 kg body weight adult were below the provisional tolerable daily intakes for Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cu and recommended daily intakes for Co, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The estimated target hazard quotients of the examined metals were less than 1 in the majority of the samples indicating no long-term health hazard at the present circumstance.
KeywordsMetals Dietary Intakes Health risk Canned fish Nigeria
The author is grateful to Dr. (Mrs) S.O Nwozo, Miss Ifeoma Ossai, Miss Onome Akpojivi, and Mr Godswill Tesi for their assistance during sampling and analysis.
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