Metal concentrations in selected brands of canned fish in Nigeria: estimation of dietary intakes and target hazard quotients
- 228 Downloads
The concentrations of metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, and Zn) were determined in selected brands of canned mackerel, sardine, and tuna in Nigeria with a view to providing information on the dietary intakes of metals and lifelong health hazards associated with the consumption of these products. The concentrations of metals were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The mean concentrations of metals in canned mackerel, sardine, and tuna were found as 0.04–0.58, 0.06–0.44, 0.32–0.83 μg/g for Cd; 0.05–2.82, 0.70–2.98, 0.23–2.56 μg/g for Pb, 1.33–11.33, <0.20–17.53, nd–34.2 μg/g for Ni, 0.49–3.79, 0.22–1.89, 0.66–14.39 μg/g for Cr, 0.33–0.92, 0.03–1.51, <0.08–1.31 μg/g for Cu, 0.11–2.17, nd–0.75, 0.14–0.50 μg/g for Co, 6.45–26.90, 6.06–53.54, 3.06–95.78 μg/g for Fe, 2.30–3.84, 0.95–21.78, 1.65–2.33 μg/g for Mn, 1.15–7.19, 3.60–17.88, 1.21–5.35 μg/g for Zn, respectively. The mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe in some of these brands of canned fish were above their permissible limits while other metals occurred at levels below their permissible limits. The estimated daily intakes of metals from consumption of 20.8 g fish per day by a 60 kg body weight adult were below the provisional tolerable daily intakes for Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cu and recommended daily intakes for Co, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The estimated target hazard quotients of the examined metals were less than 1 in the majority of the samples indicating no long-term health hazard at the present circumstance.
KeywordsMetals Dietary Intakes Health risk Canned fish Nigeria
The author is grateful to Dr. (Mrs) S.O Nwozo, Miss Ifeoma Ossai, Miss Onome Akpojivi, and Mr Godswill Tesi for their assistance during sampling and analysis.
- Abou-Arab, A. A. K., Ayesh, A. M., Amra, H. A., & Naguib, K. (1996). Characteristic levels of some pesticides and heavy metals in imported fish. Food, 57(4), 487–492.Google Scholar
- Amidzi Klaric, D., Klaric, I., Velic, D., & Vedrina Dragojevic, I. (2011). Evaluation of mineral and metal contents in Croatian Blackberry wines. Czech Journal of Food Science, 29, 260–267.Google Scholar
- Ashraf, W. (2006). Levels of selected heavy metals in tuna fish. The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 31(1A), 89–92.Google Scholar
- Boufleur, L. A., Dos Santos, C. E. I., Debastiani, R., Yoneama, M. L., Amaral, L., & Dias, J. F. (2013). Elemental characterization of Brazilian canned tuna fish using particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 30, 19–25. doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2013.01.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- CCFAC (Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants) (2001). Comments Submitted on Draft Maximum levels for lead and Cadmium . Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programmme, Thirty-third session. The Hague, the Netherlands 12–16 March 2001.Google Scholar
- Council Regulation (EC) No. 466/2001 of 8 March 2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. (Official Journal L313, 30/11/2001 P.0060-0060).Google Scholar
- EFSA (2011). Scientific Opinion statement ion tolerable weekly intake for cadmium. EFSA Journal, 9, 1975 http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/1975.pdf. Accessed 21 Feb 2012.
- EU (2003). Opinioon of the scientific committee on food on the Tolerable Upper intake level of Copper European commission, Brussels, Belgium. Available online from http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/scf/out176.eu.pdf. Accessed 1 May 2012.
- European Union (EC) (2005). Commission Regulation as regards heavy metals. Amending Regulation 466/2001.No.78/2005.Google Scholar
- FAO (1983). Compilation of Legal Limits for Hazardous Substances in Fish and Fishery Products. FAO Fishery Circular No 464, pp 5–100.Google Scholar
- FAO (2008). Statistics division, food security, food consumption. http://www.fao.org/es/faostat/foodsecurity/index-en.htm.
- FAO/WHO (2011). Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme. Codex Committee on Contaminant in foods 5 th session. The Hague, the Netherlands, 21–25 March 2011 90p. http://www.220.127.116.11/cclac/documentos/CCCF/2011/3Documentos/DocumentosIngles/cf05INF.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2013.
- Frias-Espericueta, M. G., Quintero-Alvarez, J. M., Osuna-Lopez, J. I., Sanchez-Gaxiola, C. M., Lopez-Lopez, G., Izuguirre-Fierro, G., & Voltolina, D. (2010). Metal contents of flour commercial fish species of NW Mexico. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 85, 334–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hague, T., Petroczi, A., Adrews, P.L.R., Barker, J., & Naughton, D.P. (2008). Determination of metal ion contents of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study. Chemistry Central Journal. doi: 10.1186/1752-153x-2-13. Available from http://journal.chemistrycentral.com/content/2/1/13.
- Islam, M. M., Bag, S., Kim, K. W., Ahmed, M. K., & Jannat, M. (2011). Heavy metals in frozen and canned fish marine fish Korea. Journal of Scientific Research, 2(3), 549–557.Google Scholar
- MAFF (1995). Monitoring and surveillance of non-radioactive contaminants on the aquatic environment and activities regulating the disposal of wastes at sea, 1993. Aquatic environment monitoring report No 44. Directorate of fisheries research, Lowestoft.Google Scholar
- Malakootian, M., Tahegorabi, M., Daneshpajooh, M., & Amirtaheri, K. (2011). Determination of Pb, Cd, Ni and Zn concentrations in canned fish in southern Iran. Sacha Journal of Environmental Studies, 1(1), 94–100.Google Scholar
- Marais, A. D., & Blackhurst, D. M. (2009). Do heavy metals counter the potential health benefits of wine. JEMDSA, 14(2), 77–79.Google Scholar
- Naughton, D. P., & Petroczi, A. (2008b). Heavy metal ions in wines: meta-analysis of target hazard quotient reveals health risk. Central Journal, 2, 22. doi: 10.1186/1752-153x-2-22. This article is available from http://www.journal.chemistrycental.com/conent/2/1/22
- National Research Council (NRC). (1989). Recommended Dietary allowance: 10 th Edition. Washington: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- Nutrition Data. (2008). New York: CondeNet; C2003 – 2008. Available at http://www.nutritiondata.com. Accessed 13 Oct 2008.
- Ponka, P., Tenebeins, M., Eaton, J.W. (2007). Iron In: Nordberg G.F, Fowler B.A, Nordberg, M., Friberg L.T. (Eds.). Handbook on the toxicology of metals, third ed. Academic Press pp.577-598.Google Scholar
- Sireli, U. T., Göncüoğlu, M., Yildirim, Y., Gücükoglu, A., & Cakmak, Ö. (2006). Assessment of heavy metals (cadmium and lead) in vacuum packaged smoked fish species (mackerel, Salmo salar and Oncorhynhus mykiss) marketed in Ankara (Turkey). European Union Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Science, 23(2–4), 353–356.Google Scholar
- Suppin, D., Zahlbruchker, R., Krapfenbauer-Coemak, C. H., Hassan-Hawer, C. H., & Smulders, F. J. M. (2005). Mercury, lead and cadmium content of fresh and canned fish collected from Austrian retail operations. Ernahrung/Nutretion, 29(11), 456–460.Google Scholar
- Tahan, J. E., Sanchez, J. M., Granadillo, V. A., Cubilan, H. S., & Romero, R. A. (1995). Concentration of total Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Na, Pb, and Zn in commercial canned seafood determine by atomic absorption spectrometric means after mineralization by microwave heating. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 43, 910–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Turkish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and Ministry of Health. Turkish Food Codex of certain contaminants in foodstuffs (communiqué No:2002/62) official Gazette No. 24885 dated 23 September, 2002.Google Scholar
- Tuzen, M., & Soylak, M. (2007). Determination of trace metals in canned fish marketed in Turkey. Food Chemistry, 101(1378–1382), 33.Google Scholar
- USAID (2009). Markets: Increasing competitiveness and food security in Nigeria. http://www.nigeriamarkets.org/. Accessed 2 Dec 2013.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) 2004. What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish. EPA −823-F-04-009. 2 pp. available at http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/fish/methylmercurybrochure.pdf.
- Vracko P, Tuomisto J, Grad J, Kunsler E. 2007. Exposure to children to chemical hazards in food. Fact Sheet 44 May Code RPG 4 Food Ex/. European Environment and Health Information System. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Copenhagen, Demark.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO). (1993). Evaluation of certain food addi-tives and contaminants. Technical Report series no. 837. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO) (1996). Health criteria other supporting information: In guideline for drinking water quality. Vol 2 Second Ed. Geneva pp 31–388.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO) (2003). Summary and conclusion of the 61 st meeting of the Joint FOA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) JECFA/Sc Rome, Italy 10–19 June, 2013.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO). (2004). Guidelines for drinking water quality Vol. 1. Recommendations. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO) (2008). Guidelines for drinking water quality 3 rd ed. Vol. 1 Recommendations. World Health Organization Geneva. Available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitatiion_health/dwa/fulltext.pdf. Accessed 21 Jan 2012.
- Zarei, M., Mollaie, A., & Eskandari, M. H. (2010). Histamine and heavy metals content of canned tuna fish. Global Veterinaria, 5(5), 259–263.Google Scholar