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Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 186, Issue 10, pp 6985–6992 | Cite as

Determination of trace heavy metals in harvested rainwater used for drinking in Hebron (south West Bank, Palestine) by ICP-MS

  • Husam Malassa
  • Fuad Al-Rimawi
  • Mahmoud Al-Khatib
  • Mutaz Al-Qutob
Article

Abstract

Rainwater samples harvested for drinking from the west part of Hebron (south of West Bank in Palestine), the largest city in the West Bank, were analyzed for the content of different trace heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Bi, and Pb) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This study was conducted to determine the water quality of harvested rainwater used for drinking of south West Bank (case study, Hebron area). A total of 44 water samples were collected in November 2012 from 44 house cisterns used to collect rainwater from the roofs of houses. The samples were analyzed for their pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, and different heavy metal contents. The pH of all water samples was within the US Environmental Protection Agency limits (6.5–8.5), while some water samples were found to exceed the allowed WHO limit for total dissolved solids (TDSs) in drinking water. Results showed that concentrations of the heavy metals vary significantly between the 44 samples. Results also showed that the concentration of five heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Ni, Ag, and Pb) is higher than the WHO limits for these heavy metals in drinking water. Overall, our findings revealed that harvested rainwater used for drinking of this part of south West Bank is contaminated with heavy metals that might affect human health.

Keywords

Heavy metals Lead ICP-MS Rainwater Hebron Palestine 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful for the German research funding organization (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)) for their financial support through TRION project.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Husam Malassa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fuad Al-Rimawi
    • 3
  • Mahmoud Al-Khatib
    • 3
  • Mutaz Al-Qutob
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Science and TechnologyAl-Quds UniversityEast JerusalemPalestine
  2. 2.Aquatic and Aquaculture Research LaboratoryAl-Quds UniversityEast JerusalemPalestine
  3. 3.Faculty of Science and TechnologyAl-Quds UniversityEast JerusalemPalestine

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