Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 186, Issue 10, pp 6039–6046 | Cite as

Heavy metals in jujubes and their potential health risks to the adult consumers in Xinjiang province, China

  • Fangkun Zhu
  • Shengkai Yang
  • Wenxiu Fan
  • Airong Wang
  • Hailing Hao
  • Shuwen Yao


The concentrations of seven heavy metals (HMs) in jujube samples collected from Hetian region (HTR), Hami region (HMR), Erkesu region (ESR), Bayikuleng region (BLR), and Turpan region (TUR) were determined by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The accuracy and precision of the analytical method were confirmed by the certified reference material (GBW 07605). In general, the concentration of iron was higher than those of the other six metals in the investigated jujube samples. The Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Hazard Index (HI) were calculated to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual metal and combined metals due to the dietary intakes via consumption of jujube. Both HQ and HI levels were far below 1, suggesting no noncarcinogenic risks for Xinjiang adults under the current consumption rates of the jujubes. Among the jujubes from five different regions, BLR jujube had the highest HQ and HI. Fe and As were the most concerning HMs in the investigated jujube samples due to their higher relative contributions to HIs.


Jujube Heavy metals Risk assessment China 



The authors would like to thank the key science and technology project of Henan for its financial support [122101310425].


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fangkun Zhu
    • 1
  • Shengkai Yang
    • 1
  • Wenxiu Fan
    • 1
  • Airong Wang
    • 1
  • Hailing Hao
    • 1
  • Shuwen Yao
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringHenan Institute of Science and TechnologyXinxiangChina

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