Diversity and dynamics of the Vibrio community in well water used for drinking in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa)
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Bacteria of the genus Vibrio are ubiquitous in aquatic environments and can be found either in culturable or in a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. The genus comprises many pathogenic species accountable for water and food-borne diseases that prove to be fatal, especially in developing countries, as in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa), where cholera is endemic. In order to ascertain the abundance and structure of Vibrio spp. community in well waters that serve as the sole source of water for the population, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), PCR-denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and cloning approaches were used. Results suggest that Vibrio spp. were present throughout the year in acidic, freshwater wells with a seasonal community composition shift. Vibrio spp. abundance was in accordance with the abundance found in coastal environments. Sequences closely related to pathogenic Vibrio species were retrieved from well water revealing exposure of the population to such pathogens. pH, ammonium, and turbidity, regulated by the rain pattern, seem to be the variables that contributed mostly to the shaping and selection of the Vibrio spp. community. These results reinforce the evidence for water monitoring with culture-independent methods and the clear need to create/recover water infrastructures and a proper water resources management in West African countries with similar environmental conditions.
KeywordsVibrio Denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis qPCR Drinking water Guinea-Bissau West Africa
We thank International Medical Assistance (AMI) and Ayuda, Intercambio y Desarrollo–Bissau (AIDA) for logistic support and Mr. Alfa for fieldwork assistance. This study was funded through a PhD fellowship to A. Machado (SFRH/BD/46146/2008) co-financed by POPH/FSE and a grant to A. Bordalo (PTDC/AAC-CLI/103539/2008). This research was also partially supported by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) through the COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme and national funds through FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project “PEst-C/MAR/LA0015/2013.”
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