Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 186, Issue 7, pp 4153–4168 | Cite as

Effect of seasonal variations on the surface sediment heavy metal enrichment of a lake in South India



Environmental effects due to continuous accumulation of hazardous materials like heavy metals in the surface sediments of lake systems can stress fragile ecosystems. Elucidating the mechanisms influencing the concentration and distribution of heavy metals becomes vital in formulating lake management strategies to preserve the quality of the water environment. Studying of the effect of seasonal variations on surface sediments will help in understanding the different factors and sources contributing and diluting these persistent pollutants. In this study, heavy metal pollution in a tropical shallow lake (Akkulam-Veli) in South India was investigated by monitoring the seasonal variations of heavy metals and major elements in surface sediments. The metallic pollutants (Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe, and Mn) and major elements (Si, Ti, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, K, and P (measured as oxides) in the surface sediments of this lake were monitored during four consecutive seasons. The results were subjected to correlation analysis and principal component analysis to study the interrelationships of different parameters as well to determine the possible origin of pollutants. Although metal concentrations were found to be unaffected by seasonal variations, the factors contributing to occurrence of these heavy metals were found to be affected by seasonal fluctuations.


Correlation analysis Heavy metal Major elements Principal component analysis Seasonal variations 



Authors thank the Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS), Thiruvananthapuram, for extending laboratory facilities. The financial assistance from the Kerala State Council for Science, Technology, and Environment (KSCSTE), Government of Kerala, is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Engineering Division, Department of Civil EngineeringCollege of EngineeringTrivandrumIndia
  2. 2.Department of Technical EducationGovt. of KeralaThiruvananthapuramIndia
  3. 3.TKM College of EngineeringKollamIndia

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