Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 186, Issue 3, pp 1499–1513 | Cite as

State of rare earth elements in different environmental components in mining areas of China

  • Tao Liang
  • Kexin Li
  • Lingqing Wang
Article

Abstract

China has relatively abundant rare earth elements (REEs) reserves and will continue to be one of the major producers of REEs for the world market in the foreseeable future. However, due to the large scale of mining and refining activities, large amounts of REEs have been released to the surrounding environment and caused harmful effects on local residents. This paper summarizes the data about the contents and translocation of REEs in soils, waters, atmosphere, and plants in REE mining areas of China and discusses the characteristics of their forms, distribution, fractionation, and influencing factors. Obviously high concentrations of REEs with active and bioavailable forms are observed in all environmental media. The mobility and bioavailability of REEs are enhanced. The distribution patterns of REEs in soils and water bodies are all in line with their parent rocks. Significant fractionation phenomenon among individual members of REEs was found in soil–plant systems. However, limited knowledge was available for REEs in atmosphere. More studies focusing on the behavior of REEs in ambient air of REE mining areas in China are highly suggested. In addition, systematic study on the translocation and circulation of REEs in various media in REEs mining areas and their health risk assessment should be carried out. Standard analytical methods of REEs in environments need to be established, and more specific guideline values of REEs in foods should also be developed.

Keywords

Rare earth element Chinese REE mining areas Environmental behavior 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was sponsored by the Key Project of the Knowledge Innovation Program of IGSNRR (2012ZD002), the Special Fund for the Public Interest Research of China MEP (no. 201209012), the National Key Project for Basic Research (no. 2012CB417004), and the National Natural Scientific Foundation of China (no. 41171390).

References

  1. Aguilar, J., Dorronsoro, C., Fernández, E., Fernández, J., García, I., Martín, F., et al. (2004). Soil pollution by a pyrite mine spill in Spain: evolution in time. Environmental Pollution, 132, 395–401.Google Scholar
  2. Arimoto, R., Duce, R. A., & Ray, B. J. (1989). Concentrations, sources and air-sea exchange of trace elements in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean. In J. P. Riley & R. Chester (Eds.), Chemical Oceanography (Vol. 10, pp. 107–149). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  3. Braun, J. J., Pagel, M., Muller, J. P., Bilong, P., Michard, A., & Guille, t. B. (1990). Cerium anomalies in lateritic profiles. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 54, 781–795.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, J. A., Kunz, F. W., & Belitz, R. K. (1991). Characterization of automotive catalysts using inductively coupled plasm mass spectrometry: sample preparations. Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 6, 393–395.Google Scholar
  5. Brummer, G. B. (1986). Heavy metal species: mobility and availability in soils. In M. Berhard, F.E. Brinckman, P.J Sadlers. (Eds.), The importance of chemical “speciation” in environmental progress (pp. 169–192). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  6. Cao, X. D., Chen, Y., Wang, X. R., & Deng, X. H. (2001). Effects of redox potential and pH value on there lease of rare earth elements from soil. Chemosphere, 44, 655–661.Google Scholar
  7. Castor, B., James, B. H. (2006). Rare earth elements. In E. K. Jessica, C. T. Nikhil, M. B. James (Eds.), Industrial minerals and rocks. Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, 769–792. http://www.rareelementresources.com/i/pdf/RareEarths-CastorHedrickIMAR7.pdf.
  8. Chen, Z. H. (2011). Global rare earth resources and scenarios of future rare earth industry. Journal of Rare Earths, 29, 1–6.Google Scholar
  9. Chen, B. R., Yang, S. J., Yang, Y. N., & Qian, Q. F. (1985). Characteristics of rare-earth elements in the atmospheric particulate in Tianjin. Environmental chemistry, 5, 58–62.Google Scholar
  10. Cheng, J. Z., & Che, L. P. (2010). Current mining situation and potential development of rare earth in China. Chinese Rare Earths, 31, 65–69.Google Scholar
  11. Diatloff, E., Asher, C. J., & Smith, F. W. (1993). Use of Geochem-PC to predict rare earth element (REE) species in nutrient solutions. Plant and Soil, 155, 251–256.Google Scholar
  12. Ding, S. M., Liang, T., Wang, L. J., Zhang, C. S., & Sun, Q. (2005a). Advance in study on dissolved rare earth elements in terrestrial water and their distribution characteristics and basic controlling factors. Chinese Rare Earths, 26, 53–61.Google Scholar
  13. Ding, S. M., Liang, T., Zhang, C. S., Yan, J. C., & Zhang, Z. L. (2005b). Accumulation and fractionation of rare earth elements (REEs) in wheat: controlled by phosphate precipitation, cell wall absorption and solution complexation. Journal of Experimental Botany, 56, 2765–2775.Google Scholar
  14. Ding, S. M., Liang, T., Zhang, C. S., Yan, J. C., Zhang, Z. L., Huang, Z. C., et al. (2007). Fractionations of rare earth elements (REEs) in plants and their conceptive model. Science in China. Series C, Life Sciences, 50, 47–55.Google Scholar
  15. Elderfield, H., Upstill-Goddard, R., & Sholkvitz, E. R. (1990). The rare earth element in rivers, estuaries, and coastal seas and their significance to the composition of oceans waters. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 54, 971–991.Google Scholar
  16. EPA (2012). Rare earth elements: a review of production, processing, recycling, and associated environmental issues. EPA600/R-12/572.Google Scholar
  17. Eskenazy, G. M. (1999). Aspects of the geochemistry of rare earth elements in coal: an experimental approach. International Journal of Coal Geology, 38, 285–295.Google Scholar
  18. Feng, F. F., Akagi, T., Yabuki, S., & Iwaki, M. (2001). The variation of REE (rare earth elements) patterns in soil-grown plants: a new proxy for the source of rare earth elements and silicon in plants. Plant and Soil, 235, 53–64.Google Scholar
  19. Feng, F. F., Akagi, T., Yabuki, S., Iwaki, M., & Ogura, N. (2002). Distribution of rare earth elements in seaweed: implication of two different sources of rare earth elements and silicon in seaweed. Journal of Phycological, 36, 62–70.Google Scholar
  20. Feng, L. X., Xiao, H. Q., He, X., Li, Z. J., Li, F. L., Liu, N. Q., et al. (2005). Long-term effects of lanthanum intake on the neurobehavioral development of the rat. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 28, 119–124.Google Scholar
  21. Gao, X. J., Zhang, S., & Wang, L. J. (2001). Environmental chemistry of rare earth elements (REEs) in the cultivated soil of typical REE mine in the Southern Jiangxi. Soil and Environmental science, 10, 11–13.Google Scholar
  22. Gao, Y. S., Zeng, F. L., Yi, A., Ping, S., & Jing, L. (2003). Research of the entry of rare earth elements Eu3+ and La3+ into plant cell. Biological Trace Element Research, 91, 253–265.Google Scholar
  23. Garbisu, C., & Alkorta, I. (2001). Phytoextraction: a cost-effective plant based technology for the removal of metals from the environment. Bioresource Technology, 77, 229–236.Google Scholar
  24. Guo, F. Q., Wang, Y. Q., Sun, J. X., & Chen, H. M. (1996). Preliminary study on rare earth bound proteins in natural plant fern Dicranopteris dichotoma. Journal of Nuclear and Radiochemistry, 18, 133–139.Google Scholar
  25. Han, F., Shan, X. Q., Zhang, J., Xie, Y. N., Pei, Z. G., Zhang, S. Z., et al. (2005). Organic acids promote the uptake of lanthanum by barley roots. New Phytologist, 165, 481–492.Google Scholar
  26. He, J., Mi, N., Kuang, Y. C., Fan, Q. Y., Wang, X., Guan, W., et al. (2004a). Speciation and distribution characters of rare earth elements in the Baotou section of the Yellow River. Environmental Science, 25, 61–66.Google Scholar
  27. He, J., Mi, N., Kuang, Y. C., Fan, Q. Y., Wang, X., Guan, W., et al. (2004b). Distribution characteristics of LREE in particulates of the Baotou section of the Yellow River. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, 22, 500–506.Google Scholar
  28. He, J., Mi, N., Kuang, Y. C., Fan, Q. Y., Wang, X., Guan, W., et al. (2004c). Distribution characters of rare earth elements (REEs) in sediment cores from Baotou section of the Yellow River. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 23, 250–254.Google Scholar
  29. Heinz, K. W., & Robert, E. P. (1993). Acid extractable rare elements in Florida citrus soils and trees. Communication Soil Science Plant, 24, 2059–2068.Google Scholar
  30. Hirano, S., & Suzuki, K. T. (1996). Exposure, metabolism, and toxicity of rare earths and related compounds. Environmental Health Perspectives, 104, 85–95.Google Scholar
  31. Hong, F. S., Wei, Z. G., Tao, Y., Wan, S. K., Yang, Y. T., Cao, X. D., et al. (1999). Distribution of rare earth elements and structure characterization of chlorophyll lanthanum in a natural plant fern Dicranopteris dichotoma. Acta Botanica Sinica, 41, 851–854.Google Scholar
  32. Hong, Y., Zhou, D. P., Ma, Y. J., & Liu, N. W. (2010). Trace element concentrations and distribution of atmospheric fine particles in the summer-fall in Shenyang. China Environmental Science, 30, 972–979.Google Scholar
  33. Hu, Q. H., & Jin, M. L. (2000). The chemical behavior and biological effects of rare earth elements in aquatic environment. Agro-environmental protection, 19, 274–277.Google Scholar
  34. Hu, Z. Y., Haneklaus, S., Sparovek, G., & Schnug, E. (2006). Rare earth elements in soils. Communication Soil Science Plant, 37, 1381–1420.Google Scholar
  35. Husain, M. H., Dick, J., & Kaplan, Y. (1980). Rare earth pneumoconiosis. Occupational Medicine, 30, 15.Google Scholar
  36. Ichihashi, H., Morita, H., & Tatsukawa, R. (1992). Rare earth elements (REEs) in naturally grown plants in relation to their variation in soils. Environmental Pollution, 76, 157–162.Google Scholar
  37. Ji, H. B., Wang, L. J., Dong, Y. S., Wang, S. J., Luo, J. M., & Sun, Y. Y. (2004). An overview on the study of biogeochemical cycle for rare earth elements (REEs). Progress in Geography, 23, 51–61.Google Scholar
  38. Jones, D. L. (1997). Trivalent metal (Ce, Y, Rh, La, Pr, Gd) sorption in two acid soils and its consequences for bioremediation. European Journal of Soil Science, 48, 697–702.Google Scholar
  39. Kitto, M. E., Anderson, D. L., Gordon, G. E., & Olmen, I. (1992). Rare earth distributions in catalysts and airborne particles. Environmental Science and Technology, 26, 1368–1375.Google Scholar
  40. Klukanová, A., & Rapant, S. (1999). Impact of mining activities upon the environment of the Slovak Republic: two case studies. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 66, 299–306.Google Scholar
  41. Li, Q. F., Mao, Z. W., Zhu, Y. X., Huo, D. W., Zhao, H. Z., Yin, X. L., et al. (1992). Studies on the concentration and distribution of REEs in Dicranopteris dichotoma. Chinese Rare Earths, 13, 16–19.Google Scholar
  42. Li, Q., Shen, Y. B., & Liu, W. B. (1995). The absorption and distribution of Ce in roots of Populus deltides Lux and their impact to other nutrient elements. Journal of China Rare Earth Society, 13, 355–360.Google Scholar
  43. Li, J. X., Hong, M., & Yin, X. Q. (2008). Accumulation and geochemical characteristics of exogenous rare earths in soil of leeward area of tailings dam of Baotou Iron & Steel (Group) Company. Chinese Rare Earths, 29, 57–62.Google Scholar
  44. Li, Y. X., Zhang, L., & Zhou, X. M. (2010). Resource and environment protected exploitation model for ion-type rare earth deposit in southern of China. China Rare Earths, 31, 80–85.Google Scholar
  45. Liang, T., Ding, S. M., Song, W. C., Chong, Z. Y., Zhang, C. S., & Li, H. T. (2008). A review of fractionations of rare earth elements in plant. Journal of Rare Earths, 26, 7–15.Google Scholar
  46. Liu, J. Y., Chang, X. Y., & Tu, X. L. (2006). Review on heavy metal pollution in mine exploitation. Mineral Resources and Geology, 12, 645–650.Google Scholar
  47. Lu, G. C., Gao, Z. H., Meng, Y. X., Chen, Q., Ren, S. Y., Tang, X. K., et al. (1995). Hygienic investigation of different rare earth (RE) mining areas in China: RE levels of farmer’s natural living environment and head hair. Chinese Journal of Environmental Science, 4, 78–82.Google Scholar
  48. Luís, A. T., Teixeira, P., Almeida, S. F. P., Matos, J. X., & Silva, E. F. (2011). Environmental impact of mining activities in the Lousal area (Portugal): chemical and diatom characterization of metal-contaminated stream sediments and surface water of Corona stream. Science of the Total Environment, 409, 4312–4325.Google Scholar
  49. Ma, Y. J., Huo, R. K., Xu, Z. F., Zhang, H., & Liu, C. Q. (2004). REE behavior and influence factors during chemical weathering. Advances in Earth Science, 19, 87–94.Google Scholar
  50. Meng, X. L., & Ji, H. B. (2007). Contents and distribution pattern of dissolved rare earth elements in Ganjiang River in the Southern Jiangxi Province. Journal of Chinese Rare Earth Society, 25, 625–637.Google Scholar
  51. Meng, X. L., & Ji, H. B. (2008). Advance in study on rare earth elements in waters and their geochemistry. Journal of Capital Normal University(Natural Science Edition), 29, 64–68.Google Scholar
  52. Miekeley, N., Casartelli, E. A., & Dotto, R. M. (1994). Concentration levels of rare-earth elements and thorium in plants from the Morro do Ferro environment as an indicator for the biological availability of transuranium elements. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 182, 75–79.Google Scholar
  53. Milliman, J. D., & Meade, R. (1983). World-wide deliver of river sediments to the oceans. Journal of Geology, 91, 1–21.Google Scholar
  54. Natarajan, K. A., Subramanian, S., & Braun, J. J. (2006). Environmental impact of metal mining- biotechnological aspects of water pollution and remediation—an Indian experience. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 88, 45–48.Google Scholar
  55. Chinese Ministry of Health (2005). Maximum levels of contaminants in foods GB2762-2005, Beijing, China.Google Scholar
  56. Olmez, L., & Gordon, G. E. (1985). Reports: rare earths: atmospheric signatures for oil-fired power plants and refineries. Science, 229, 966–968.Google Scholar
  57. Peng, A., & Wang, Z. J. (1995). Recent research progress on environmental chemistry of rare earth elements. Advances in Environmental Science, 3, 22–32.Google Scholar
  58. Protano, G., & Riccobono, F. (2002). High contents of rare earth elements (REEs) in stream waters of a Cu–Pb–Zn mining area. Environmental Pollution, 117, 499–514.Google Scholar
  59. Quiquampoix, H., Ratcliffe, R. G., Ratkovic, S., & Vucinic, Z. (1990). 1H and 31P NMR investigation of gadolinium uptake in maize roots. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 38, 265–275.Google Scholar
  60. Ran, Y., & Liu, Z. (1992). Characteristics of adsorption and desorption of REEs on main type soils of China. Journal of Chinese Rare Earth Society, 10, 377–380.Google Scholar
  61. Robert, H. B., Liu, X. W., & Schijf, J. (1996). The influence of phosphate coprecipitation on rare earth distributions in natural waters. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60, 3341–3346.Google Scholar
  62. Robinson, W. O. (1943). The occurrence of rare earths in plants and soils. Soil Science, 56, 1.Google Scholar
  63. Salomons, W. (1995). Environmental impact of metals derived from mining activities: processes, predictions, prevention. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 52, 5–23.Google Scholar
  64. Shan, X. Q., Wang, H. I., Zhang, S. Z., Zhou, H. F., Zheng, Y., Yu, H., et al. (2003). Accumulation and uptake of light rare earth elements in a hyperaccumulator Dicropteris dichotoma. Plant Science, 165, 1343–1353.Google Scholar
  65. Sholkovitz, E. D. (1994a). Ocean particle chemistry: the fractionation of rare earth elements between suspended particles and seawater. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 1567–1579.Google Scholar
  66. Sholkovitz, E. R. (1994b). The aquatic chemistry of rare earth elements in rivers and estuaries. Aquatic Geochemistry, 1, 1–34.Google Scholar
  67. Sholkovitz, E. D., Church, T. M., & Arimoto, R. (1993). Rare earth element composition of precipitation, precipitation particles, and aerosols. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, 20587–20599.Google Scholar
  68. Sholkvitz, E. R. (1993). The geochemistry of rare earth element in the Amazon River estuary. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 57, 2181–2190.Google Scholar
  69. Sholkvitz, E. R. (1995). The aquatic chemistry of rare earth element in rivers and estuaries. Aquatic Geochimica, 1, 1–34.Google Scholar
  70. Sugimae, A. (1980). Atmospheric concentrations and sources of rare earth elements in the Osaka area. Japan Atmospheric Environment, 14, 1171–1175.Google Scholar
  71. Sultan, K., & Shazili, N. A. (2009). Rare earth elements in tropical surface water, soil and sediments of the Terengganu River Basin. Malaysia Journal of Rare Earths, 27, 1073–1078.Google Scholar
  72. Suzuki, Y., Hikida, S., & Furuta, N. (2011). Cycling of rare earth elements in the atmosphere in central Tokyo. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 13, 3420–3428.Google Scholar
  73. Tagami, K., & Uchida, S. (2005). Transfer of REEs from nutrient solution to radish through fine roots and their distribution in the plant. Journal of Alloys and Compound, 408, 409–412.Google Scholar
  74. Taylor, S. R., & McLennan, S. M. (1985). The continental crust its composition and evolution (p. 311). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  75. Teng, Y. G., Ni, S. J., Jiao, P. C., Deng, J., Zhang, C. J., & Wang, J. S. (2004). Eco-environmental geochemistry of heavy metal pollution in Dexing mining area. Chinese Journal of Geochemistry, 23, 349–358.Google Scholar
  76. Anonymous, 2012. Situation and Policy of China’s Rare Earth Industry, White Paper (English Version). The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China http://www.scio.gov.cn/zfbps/ndhf/2012/Document/1175419/1175419.htm.
  77. Thomas, W. A. (1975). Accumulation of rare earths and circulation of cerium by mockernut hickory trees. Canadian Journal of Botany, 53, 1159–1165.Google Scholar
  78. Tyler, G. (2004). Rare earth elements in soil and plant systems—a review. Plant soil, 267, 191–206.Google Scholar
  79. Volokh, A. A., Gorbunov, A. V., Gundorina, S. F., Revich, B. A., Frontasyeva, M. V., & Palvolokh, C. S. (1990). Phosphorus fertilizer production as a source of rare-earth elements pollution of the environment. Science of the Total Environment, 95, 141–148.Google Scholar
  80. Wang, Z. W. (2003). Rare earth elements of atmosphere and effects of rare earth elements on emission of green house gases. Master Dissertation: Guangxi University.Google Scholar
  81. Wang, L. F. (2005). Studies on the photosynthetic characterizations and distributions of rare earth elements in fern Dicranopteris dichotoma. PH.D Dissertation, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science.Google Scholar
  82. Wang, Z. G., Yu, X. Y., & Zhao, Z. H. (1989). The geochemistry of rare earth elements (p. 321). Beijing: Science Press.Google Scholar
  83. Wang, L. J., Zhang, S., & Zhang, C. S. (1995). Aquatic environmental geochemistry characteristics of rare earth elements in the middle-lower reaches of Changjiang (Yangtzi) river. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 15, 57–65.Google Scholar
  84. Wang, Y. Q., Sun, J. X., Chen, H. M., & Guo, F. Q. (1997). Study on contents and distribution characteristics of rare earths in natural plants by NAA. Journal of Chinese Rare Earth Society, 15, 160–164.Google Scholar
  85. Wang, L. J., Zhang, C. S., Zhang, S., Chen, N., & Yang, L. (1998). Geochemical characteristics of rare earth elements in the Zhujiang River in Guangzhou. Acta Geographical Sinica, 53, 453–462.Google Scholar
  86. Wang, C. X., Zhu, W., Wang, Z. J., & Guicherit, R. (2000a). Rare earth elements and other metals in atmospheric particulate matter in the western part of the Netherlands. Water Air Soil Pollution, 121, 109–118.Google Scholar
  87. Wang, Z. L., Liu, C. Q., Xu, Z. F., Zhu, J. M., & Zhang, J. (2000b). Advances in research on geochemistry of rare earth elements in rivers. Advance in Earth Sciences, 15, 553–558.Google Scholar
  88. Wang, C. X., Zhu, W., Wang, Z. J., Penga, A., & Guicherit, R. (2001a). Comparative studies on the concentration of rare earth elements and heavymetals in the atmospheric particulate matter in Beijing, China, and in Delft, the Netherlands. Environmental International, 26, 309–313.Google Scholar
  89. Wang, Y. Q., Sun, J. X., Zhang, Z. Y., Guo, F. Q., Chen, H. M., & Jiang, P. (2001b). Study on REEs speciation in natural plant by MAA. Nuclear Techniques, 24, 721–726.Google Scholar
  90. Wang, L. J., Liang, T., Hu, A. T., Ding, S. M., Zhang, C. S., & Yan, X. (2005). Accumulation and fractionation of rare earth elements in soil–rice system. Journal of Rare Earths, 23, 747–751.Google Scholar
  91. Wang, L. F., Ji, H. B., & Tian, W. M. (2010). Fine location of rare earths and effects of light inhibition on photosynthetic characterization of D. dichotoma in a heavy rare earth mine. Journal of Chinese Rare Earth Society, 28, 379–386.Google Scholar
  92. Wei, F. S., Zheng, C. J., Chen, J. S., & Wu, Y. Y. (1991). Study on the background contents on 61 elements of soils in China. Chinese Journal of Environmental Science, 12, 12–20.Google Scholar
  93. Wei, Z. H., Hong, F. S., Zhao, G. W., Tao, Y., Hu, T. D., Liu, T., et al. (2000). Determination of double decker sandwich structured La-substituted chlorophyll a by EXAFS. Acta Chimica Sinica, 58, 559–562.Google Scholar
  94. Wei, Z. G., Yin, M., Zhang, X., Hong, F. S., Li, B., Tao, Y., et al. (2001). Rare earth elements in naturally grown fern Dicranopteris linearis in relation to their variation in soils in South Jiangxi region (Southern China). Environmental Pollution, 114, 345–355.Google Scholar
  95. Wei, Z. G., Zhang, H. J., Li, H. X., & Hu, F. (2006). Research trends on rare earth element hyperaccumulator. Journal of Chinese Rare Earth Society, 24, 1–11.Google Scholar
  96. Wyttenbach, A., Furrer, V., Schleppi, P., & Tobler, L. (1998). Rare earth elements in soil and in soil-grown plants. Plant and Soil, 199, 267–271.Google Scholar
  97. Xiao, H. Q., Zhang, Z. Y., Li, F. L., & Chai, Z. F. (2003). Study on contents and distribution characteristics of REE in fern by NAA. Nuclear Techniques, 26, 420–424.Google Scholar
  98. Xu, X. K. (2005). Research advances in the behavior and fate of rare earth elements in soil–plant systems. Journal of Agro-environmental Science, 24, 315–319.Google Scholar
  99. Yang, Y. G. (1996). Agricultural geochemical studies of the rare earth elements. Earth and Environmental, 24, 39–43.Google Scholar
  100. Yang, S. J., Yang, Y. N., Chen, B. R., & Chen, B. (1993). Characterization of marine aerosol and its sources over the western Pacific ocean. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae, 13, 135–142.Google Scholar
  101. Yu, J., Huang, Z. Y., & Chen, T. (2009). Determination of rare-earth elements (REEs) in orange-growing soils and navel oranges around rare-earth mining area in southern Jiangxi. Food Science, 30, 309–313.Google Scholar
  102. Zhang, L. C., Zhang, S., Dong, W. J., & Wang, L. J. (1992). The geochemical research of water environment in the source regions of Changjiang River (pp. 6l–199l). Beijing: China Environmental Science Press.Google Scholar
  103. Zhang, H., Liu, Y. H., & Ma, Y. F. (1997). Sinultaneous dertermination of rare earth in rare earth ore band tea-leaves by ICP-AES. Spectroscopy Spectrom Analytical, 17, 74–78.Google Scholar
  104. Zhang, H., Feng, J., & Zhu, W. F. (1999). Characteristic of rare earth distribution in biologic chains of rare earth rich background regions. Journal of Chinese Rare Earth Society, 17, 365–368.Google Scholar
  105. Zhang, Z. Y., Wang, Y. Q., Sun, J. X., & Li, F. L. (2000a). Chemical species of rare earth elements in RE hyperaccumulator Dicranopteris dichotoma. Chinese Rare Earths, 21, 42–45.Google Scholar
  106. Zhang, Z. Y., Wang, Y. Q., Sun, J. X., Li, F. L., Chai, Z. F., Xu, L., et al. (2000b). Determination of rare earth elements in plant protoplasts by MAA. Chinese Science Bulletin, 45, 1497–1499.Google Scholar
  107. Zhang, Z. Y., Wang, Y. Q., Li, F. L., Zhao, H. Q., & Chai, Z. F. (2002). Distribution characteristics of rare earth elements in plants from a rare earth ore area. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 252, 461–465.Google Scholar
  108. Zhang, Q. H., Tong, L. G., Cheng, L., Zhu, J., & Wang, Q. (2012). Characteristics of REE distribution in the surface soil of the farmland in wastewater irrigation area. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis., 34, 0614–0618.Google Scholar
  109. Zhou, G. H., Sun, B. B., Liu, Z. Y., Wei, H. L., Zeng, D. M., & Zhang, B. M. (2012). Geochemical feature of rare earth elements in major rivers of eastern China. Geoscience, 26, 1028–1042.Google Scholar
  110. Zhu, J. G., Xing, G. X., Yamasaki, S., & Tsumura, A. (1993). Adsorption and desorption of exogenous rare earth elements in soils: I. Rate of forms of rare earth elements sorbed. Pedosphere, 3, 299–308.Google Scholar
  111. Zhu, W. M., Zhang, J. Z., & Zhang, L. G. (1996). Numericals imulation of RE migration in soils. Journal of Chinese Rare Earth Society, 14, 341–346.Google Scholar
  112. Zhu, W. F., Xu, S. Q., Shao, P. P., Zhang, H., Feng, J., Wu, D. L., et al. (1997). Investigation on intake allowance of rare earth-A study on bio-effect of rare earth in South Jiangxi. China Environmental Science, 17, 63–66.Google Scholar
  113. Zhu, J. H., Yuan, Z. K., Wang, X. Y., & Yan, S. M. (2002). Investigation on the contents of rare earth elements in environment of rare earth ore area in Jiangxi. Environmental Health, 19, 443–448.Google Scholar
  114. Zhu, J. H., Yuan, Z. K., Pan, X. C., & Yan, S. M. (2003). Determination on rare earth level in air. Chinese Journal of Public Health, 19, 1414–1415.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CASBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations