Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 186, Issue 2, pp 711–718 | Cite as

The reproduction of Enchytraeus sp.—technical improvement for the counting of juveniles

  • Vít Matějů
  • Simona Vosáhlová
  • Robin Kyclt
  • Tomáš Janoch
  • Gabriela Šedivcová
Article
  • 153 Downloads

Abstract

Soil-dwelling annelids of the genus Enchytraeus are used in ecotoxicology for testing of chemicals mixed in artificial soil or for testing of wastes and soils of unknown quality. ISO 16387 describes a method for determining the effects of substances or contaminated soils on survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus or of the smaller species Enchytraeus buchholzi or Enchy-traeus crypticus. After the total test duration of 6 (or 4) weeks, the juveniles hatched in the meantime are counted. There are several possible extraction techniques, which are always followed by counting the juveniles by hand, but none of them seems easy to handle. We proposed a new modification of the worm extraction method using flotation of fixed and stained juveniles followed by taking a photograph. The digital image of the juveniles is evaluated by computer processing. It makes the counting of juveniles much easier and less labor intensive.

Keywords

Enchytraeus crypticus Ecotoxicity Juvenile counting Photographing Digital image 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of The Czech Republic within the framework of project no. 1 M06011 Centre of Molecular Methods for Monitoring of Diffuse Pollution.

References

  1. Amorim, M. J. B., Kuperman, R., & Römbke, J. (2009). Enchytraeid reproduction tests. In H. Moser & J. Römbke (Eds.), Ecotoxicological characterisation of waste—results and experiences from an International ring test (pp. 177–182). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Amorim, M. J. B., Natal-da-Luz, T., Sousa, J. P., Loureiro, S., Becker, L., Römbke, J., & Soares, A. M. V. M. (2012). Boric acid as reference substance: pros, cons and standardization. Ecotoxicology, 21(3), 919–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker, L., Scheffczyk, A., Oehlmann, J., Princz, J., Römbke, J., & Moser, T. (2011). Effects of boric acid on various microbes, plants and soil invertebrates. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 11(2), 238–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. CEN/TR 16110 (2010). Characterization of waste—guidance on the use of ecotoxicity tests applied to waste. A Technical Report, European Committee for Standardization.Google Scholar
  5. EN 14735 (2005). Characterization of waste—preparation of waste samples for ecotoxicity tests. The European Standard, European Committee for Standardization.Google Scholar
  6. EN ISO/IEC 17025 (2005). Conformity assessment—general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. The European Standard, Technical Committee ISO/CASCO in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/CLC/TC 1.Google Scholar
  7. Image Tool (2002). UTHSCSA ImageTool 3.0, UTHSCSA Dental Diagnostic Science, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA. http://compdent.uthscsa.edu/dig/itdesc.html
  8. ISO 10390 (2005). Soil quality—determination of pH.Google Scholar
  9. ISO 11465 (1993). Soil quality—Determination of dry matter and water content on a mass basis—gravimetric method.Google Scholar
  10. ISO 16387 (2004). Soil quality—effects of pollutants on Enchytraeidae (Enchytraeus sp.)—determination of effects on reproduction and survival.Google Scholar
  11. Moser, H., & Römbke, J. (2009). Ecotoxicological characterisation of waste—results and experiences of an International ring test. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  12. Prism 4.0 (2005). Prism 4 for Windows, GraphPad Software, Inc. www.graphpad.com
  13. Statistica (2005). STATISTICA Cz 7.1, StatSoft, Inc. www.StatSoft.com

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vít Matějů
    • 1
  • Simona Vosáhlová
    • 1
  • Robin Kyclt
    • 1
  • Tomáš Janoch
    • 1
  • Gabriela Šedivcová
    • 1
  1. 1.ENVISAN-GEM, Inc.Prague 10Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations