Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 12, pp 10473–10477 | Cite as

Dissipation, residues, and risk assessment of spirodiclofen in citrus

  • Haibin Sun
  • Congyun Liu
  • Siwei Wang
  • Yanping Liu
  • Mingjin Liu
Article

Abstract

The dissipation, residues, and distribution of spirodiclofen, a new type of insecticide and acaricide that belongs to the class of ketoenols or tetronic acids, in citrus were investigated in this study. Risk assessment of sprodiclofen was also conducted based on those data. The open-field experiments were conducted in Guangdong, Fujian, and Guangxi of China. Results showed that the half-lives in citrus ranged from 6.5 to 13.6 days at three sites. The terminal residues of spirodiclofen were all below the FAO/WHO maximum residue limit of 0.5 mg/kg in citrus, when they were determined 14 days after final application. Distribution of spirodiclofen in peel and flesh was analyzed, and residues were found to be concentrated on peel. Risk assessment was performed by calculation of risk quotient, which showed that the use of spirodiclofen is comparably safe for humans.

Keywords

Spirodiclofen Citrus Dissipation Residue 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This study was supported by specific programs for promote scientific and technological development of the service industry, Science and Technology Department of Guangdong Province (item no. 200903033-7).

References

  1. Bai, Y., Xu, P. J., Gao, X. S., Sun, W., & Zhang, H. Y. (2009). Determination of residual spirodiclofen in apple and soil. Journal of Analytical Sciences, 25(2), 229–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hiemstra, M., & Kok, A. (2007). Comprehensive multi-residue method for the target analysis of pesticides in crops using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography. A, 1154, 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Karmakar, R., & Kulshrestha, G. (2009). Persistence, metabolism, and safety evaluation of thiamethoxam in tomato crop. Pest Manage Science, 65, 931–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Li, X., Yan, Q. X., Zhao, P., Zhang, M. C., & Liu, S. W. (2011). Market situation and biological activity of spirodiclofen. Agrochemicals, 50(9), 680–682.Google Scholar
  5. Liu, J. N., Han, Z. H., Wu, G. Q., Shi, L. L., & Shan, Z. J. (2007). Gas chromatographic determination of spirodiclofen residues in orange and soil. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 26, 647–650.Google Scholar
  6. Lu, H., Chen, B. X., Dong, Y. Z., Cheng, J. N., & Zhang, Y. J. (2010). A novel acaricide spiromesifen activity and efficacy evaluation for Panonychus citri. South China Fruits, 39(5), 43–46.Google Scholar
  7. Nguyena, T. D., Hana, E. M., Seoa, M. S., Kima, S. R., Yuna, M. Y., Leeb, D. M., & Lee, G. H. (2008). A multi-residue method for the determinationof 203 pesticides in rice paddies using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 619, 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Qian, Y. Z., & Li, Y. (2007). Risk Assessment for Quality and Safety of Agro-foods: Principles, Methodologies and Applications, Beijing: Standards Press of China.Google Scholar
  9. Shan, Y. (2006). Industrial technology research and development of citrus processing. Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology, 1(6), 423.Google Scholar
  10. Xie, L., Yang, R. B., Fu, Q., Xiao, S. H., & Liu, W. R. (2012). Residue and dissipation dynamics of spirodiclofen in orange and soil. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 28(31), 271–276.Google Scholar
  11. Xu, P. J., Gao, X. S., Tao, B., Zhang, H. Y., & Jiang, S. H. (2008). Determination of spirodiclofen residue in nine fruits by gas chromatography–quadruple mass spectrometry with dispersive solid phase extraction. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 36(11), 1515–1520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Yuan, J. Z., & Tang, Z. H. (2005). Acaricides and their mode of action. World Pesticide, 27(6), 1–5.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haibin Sun
    • 1
  • Congyun Liu
    • 2
  • Siwei Wang
    • 1
  • Yanping Liu
    • 1
  • Mingjin Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant protection research institute Guangdong academy of agricultural sciencesGuangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of High Technology for Plant ProtectionGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Center for Quality Safety and Standard Research of Agricultural ProductsGuangdong Academy of Agricultural SciencesGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations