Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 12, pp 10431–10440 | Cite as

Distribution of trace elements in certain ecological components and animal products in a dairy farm at Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India

  • V. Raghu


Biogeochemical characteristics of the cattle are dealt based on the observations made in Ayurveda in the light of modern scientific developments in applied environmental geochemistry. The biogeochemical characteristics of certain important ecological components and animal products of the stall-fed animals were studied. For this purpose, a dairy farm of Tirumala–Tirupati Devasthanams, a religious organization in Tirupati, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh was selected. This study is intended to trace out the trace element interactions in the ecological components (soil, water, fodder, feed) of the stall-fed animals and their output components viz. dung, urine and milk. Physical, physico-chemical properties and certain trace elements were determined for composite samples of ecological components and dung, urine, and milk of stall-fed animals. The variations in the distribution of pH and EC of urine and milk reflect the variations in their physico-chemical or hydro-chemical properties. As mentioned in Ayurveda, not only the properties of milk but also the properties of dung and urine reflect their diet and conditions of their habitat. Even though the diet is the same, the cows of different breeds yield milk of variable physical, physico-chemical properties and trace element composition which can be attributed to their body colour, substantiating Ayurveda.


Ayurveda Body colour Dairy farm Dung Ecological components Milk Trace elements Urine 



I owe a great deal to my Research Supervisor, the late Prof. E.A.V. Prasad, Department of Geology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati for without whose inspiration and guidance this work would not have been attempted. I thank the Farm Superintendent of TTD Dairy farm, Tirupati for permitting to collect the samples. Grateful thanks are due to Prof. B.L.K. Somayajulu, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmadabad for providing necessary facilities to carry out trace element analysis. I express my deep sense of gratitude to Dr. J. Rama Prasad, former Professor, Department of Animal Nutrition, College of Veterinary Science, Tirupati for meticulously going through the manuscript and improving its quality. I am thankful to the reviewers who have provided valuable comments to improve the quality of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Andhra Pradesh State Remote Sensing Applications Centre (APSRAC)HyderabadIndia

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