Advertisement

Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 185, Issue 10, pp 8287–8302 | Cite as

Natural regeneration of the herbaceous community in a semiarid region in Northeastern Brazil

  • J. M. F. F. Santos
  • D. M. Santos
  • C. G. R. Lopes
  • K. A. Silva
  • E. V. S. B. Sampaio
  • E. L. Araújo
Article

Abstract

This study aimed to describe and compare the interannual changes in the diversity and population structure of herbaceous plants in an anthropogenic area that has been regenerating for 15 years and to identify the similarities and differences in the biological attributes of the community compared with the characteristics of a regenerating conserved area. In total, 105 plots measuring 1 m2 were established. In each plot, the herbaceous plants were identified, and their height and stem diameter were measured for two consecutive years. The herbaceous flora of the anthropogenic area was represented by 86 species in 70 genera and 27 families, and there were no significant differences in the average richness between years. The conserved area was represented by 71 species in 63 genera and 35 families, and there was a significant difference in the total richness between areas and between years, except when comparing the richness between the conserved area and the anthropogenic area during the second year. Considering both the anthropogenic and conserved areas, 123 herbaceous species were listed, and the similarity between areas was 60 %. For the anthropogenic area, the floristic similarity between years was 95 %, and in the fragment of the conserved area, the similarity was 74 %. The diversity and density were significantly different between years and between areas. Given these results, this study suggests that 15 years of natural regeneration for the caatinga is not sufficient to reestablish its native flora with respect to its herbaceous component.

Keywords

Climate seasonality Density Diversity Floristic composition 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico—CNPq) for financial support (process 4718005/2007-6), the station at the Agricultural Research Company of Pernambuco (Empresa Pernambucana de Pesquisa Agropecuária—IPA) for their logistical support and permission to work in the area, and the Graduate Program in Botany at the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco for providing the master’s student fellowship. The authors would also like to thank experts Maria Bernadete Costa e Silva and Lucilene Lima dos Santos for the identification of some species and all of the trainees at the Plant Ecology of Natural Ecosystems Laboratory (Laboratório de Ecologia Vegetal de Ecossistemas Naturais—LEVEN) for their assistance in the data collection.

References

  1. Albuquerque, U. P., & Lucena, R. F. P. (2005). Can apparency affect the use of plants by local people in tropical forests? Interciencia, 30(8), 506–511.Google Scholar
  2. Alcoforado-Filho, F. G., Sampaio, E. V. S. B., & Rodal, M. J. N. (2003). Florística e fitossociologia de um remanescente de vegetação caducifólia espinhosa arbórea em Caruaru, Pernambuco. Acta Botanica Brasílica, 17(2), 287–303.Google Scholar
  3. Andrade, J. R., Santos, J. M. F. F., Lima, E. N., Lopes, C. G. R., Silva, K. A., & Araújo, E. L. (2007). Estudo populacional de Panicum trichoides Swart. (Poaceae) em uma área de caatinga em Caruaru, Pernambuco. Revista Brasileira de Biociências, 5, 858–860.Google Scholar
  4. Araújo, E. L. (2005). Estresses abióticos e bióticos como forças modeladoras da dinâmica de populações vegetais da caatinga. In R. J. M. C. Nogueira et al. (Eds.), Estresses ambientais: Danos e benefícios em plantas (pp. 50–64). Recife: MXM Gráfica e Editora.Google Scholar
  5. Araújo, E. L., & Ferraz, E. M. N. (2003). Processos ecológicos mantenedores da diversidade vegetal na caatinga: estado atual do conhecimento. In V. Claudino-Sales (Ed.), Ecossistemas brasileiros: Manejo e conservação (pp. 115–128). Fortaleza: Expressão Gráfica.Google Scholar
  6. Araújo, E. L., Martins, F. R., & Santos, A. M. (2005). Establishment and death of two dry tropical forest woody species in dry and rainy seasons in northeastern Brazil. In R. J. M. C. Nogueira et al. (Eds.), Estresses ambientais: Danos e benefícios em plantas (pp. 76–91). Recife: MXM Gráfica e Editora.Google Scholar
  7. Araújo, E. L., Silva, K. A., Ferraz, E. M. N., Sampaio, E. V. S. B., & Silva, S. I. (2005). Diversidade de herbáceas em microhabitats rochoso, plano e ciliar em uma área de caatinga, Caruaru- PE. Acta Botânica Brasílica, 19(2), 285–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Araújo, E. L., Castro, C. C., & Albuquerque, U. P. (2007). Dynamics of Brazilian caatinga—a review concerning the plants, environment and people. Functional Ecology and Communities, 1, 5–28.Google Scholar
  9. Behera, S. K., & Misra, M. K. (2006). Floristic and structure of the herbaceous vegetation of four recovering forest stands in the Eastern Ghats of India. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15, 2263–2285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Belsky, A. J. (1990). Tree/grass ratios in East African savannas: a comparison of existing models. Journal of Biogeography, 17, 483–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brumitt, R. K., & Powell, C. E. (1992). Authors of plant names. London: Royal Botanic Gardens.Google Scholar
  12. Clark, J. S., & McLachlan, J. S. (2003). Stability of forest diversity. Nature, 423, 635–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clary, J. (2008). Rainfall seasonality determines annual/perennial grass balance in vegetation of Mediterranean Iberian. Plant Ecology, 195, 13–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Costa, R., Araújo, F. S., & Lima-Verde, L. W. (2007). Flora and life-form spectrum in an area of deciduous thorn woodland (caatinga) in northeastern, Brazil. Journal of Arid Environments, 68, 237–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cronquist, A. (1988). An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Drumond, M. A., Kiill, L. H. P., Lima, P. C. F., Oliveira, M. C., Oliveira, R. V., Albuquerque, S. G., et al. (2004). Estratégias para o uso sustentável da biodiversidade da caatinga. In J. M. C. Silva et al. (Eds.), Biodiversidade da caatinga: Áreas e ações prioritárias para a conservação (pp. 329–340). Brasília: Ministério do meio Ambiente: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco.Google Scholar
  17. Duarte SMA, Barbosa MP, Neto JMM (2009) Avaliação das classes da cobertura vegetal no municipio de Taperoá, estado da Paraíba. Engenharia Ambiental, Espírito Santo do Pinhal.Google Scholar
  18. Feitoza, M. O. M., Araújo, E. L., Sampaio, E. V. S. B., & Kiill, L. H. P. (2008). Fitossociologia e danos foliares ocorrentes na comunidade herbácea de uma área de caatinga em Petrolina, PE. In U. P. Albuquerque et al. (Eds.), Biodiversidade, potencial econômico e processos eco-fisiologicos em ecossistemas nordestinos (pp. 6–30). Recife: Comunigraf/Nupea.Google Scholar
  19. Ferguson, B. G. (2001). Post-agricultural tropical forest succession: patterns, processes and implications for conservation and restoration. Ph.D Thesis. Department of Biology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  20. Ferguson, B. G., Vandermeer, J., Morales, H., & Griffith, D. M. (2003). Post-Agricultural Succession in El Petén, Guatemala. Conservation Biology, 17(3), 818–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Figuerôa, J. M., Pareyn, F. G. C., Araújo, E. L., Silva, C. E., Santos, V. F., Cutler, D. F., et al. (2006). Effects of cutting regimes in the dry and wet season on survival and sprouting of woody species from the semi-arid caatinga of northeast Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management, 229, 294–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Forbis, T. A., Larmore, J., & Addis, E. (2004). Temporal patterns in seedling establishment on pocket gopher disturbances. Oecologia, 138, 112–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Francis, J. K., & Parrotta, J. A. (2006). Vegetation response to grazing and planting of Leucaena leucocephala in a Urochloa maximum-dominated Grassland in Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science, 42(1), 67–74.Google Scholar
  24. Girma, T. (2001). Land degradation: a challenge to Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental Management, 27(6), 815–824.Google Scholar
  25. Jia, X., Shao, M., & Wei, X. (2011). Richness and composition of herbaceous species in restored shrubland and grassland ecosystems in the northern Loess Plateau of China. Biodiversity and Conservation, 20, 3435–3452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Knapp, A. K., Fay, P. A., Blair, J. M., Collins, S. L., Smith, M. D., Carlisle, J. D., et al. (2002). Rainfall variability, carbon cycling, and plant species diversity in mesic grassland. Science, 298, 2202–2205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Krebs, C. J. (1989). Ecological methodology. New York: Harper & Row Publishers.Google Scholar
  28. Kushwaha, S. P. S., & Nandy, S. (2012). Species diversity and community structure in sal (Shorea robusta) forests of two different rainfall regimes in West Bengal, India. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21, 1215–1228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lima, E. N., Araújo, E. L., Sampaio, E. V. S. B., Ferraz, E. M. N., Silva, K. A., & Pimentel, R. M. M. (2007). Fenologia e dinâmica de duas populações herbáceas da caatinga. Revista de Geografia, 24, 124–145.Google Scholar
  30. Lopes, C. G. R., Ferraz, E. M. N., Castro, C. C., Lima, E. M., Santos, J. M. F. F., Santos, D. M., et al. (2012). Forest succession and distance from preserved patches in the Brazilian semiarid region. Forest Ecology and Management, 271, 115–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Luoga, E. J., Witkowski, E. T. F., & Balkwill, K. (2004). Regeneration by coppicing (resprouting) of miombo (Africa savanna) trees in relation to land use. Forest Ecology and Management, 189, 23–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Maracajá, P. B., & Benevides, D. S. (2006). Estudo da Flora Herbácea da Caatinga no Município de Caraúbas no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte. Revista de Biologia e Ciências da Terra, 6, 165–175.Google Scholar
  33. McCray, J. K., Walsh, B., & Hammett, A. L. (2005). Species, sources, seasonality and sustainability of fuelwood commercialization in Malaya. Forest Ecology and Management, 205, 299–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McLaren, K. P., & McDonald, M. A. (2003). The effects of moisture and shade on seed germination and seedling survival in a tropical dry forest in Jamaica. Forest Ecology and Management, 183, 61–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mekuria, W., Veldkamp, E., Nyssen, H. J., Muys, B., & Gebrehiwot, K. (2007). Effectiveness of exclosures to restore degraded soils as a result of overgrazing in Tigray, Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environmental, 69, 270–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mori, S. A., Silva, L. A. M., & Lisboa, G. (1989). Manual de manejo do herbário fanerogâmico. Ilhéus: Centro de Pesquisa do Cacau.Google Scholar
  37. Nascimento, V. T., Sousa, L. G., Alves, A. G. C., Araújo, E. L., & Albuquerque, U. P. (2008). Rural fences in agricultural landscapes and their conservation role in an area of caatinga (dryland vegetation) in Northeast Brazil. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 11(5), 1005–1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Negrero-Castilho, P., & Hall, R. B. (2000). Sprouting capability of 17 tropical tree species after overstory removal in Quintana Rôo, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management, 126, 399–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nippert, J. B., Knapp, A. K., & Briggs, J. M. (2006). Intra-annual rainfall variability and grassland productivity: can the past predict the future? Plant Ecology, 184, 65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Noel, F., Porcher, E., Moret, J., & Machon, N. (2006). Connectivity, habitat heterogeneity, and population persistence in Ranunculus nodiflorus, an endangered species in France. The New Phytologist, 169, 71–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nyssen, J., Poesen, J., Moeyersons, J., Deckers, J., & Mitiku, L. A. (2004). Human impact on the environment in the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands—a state of the art. Earth Science Reviews, 64, 273–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Parthasarathy, N., & Karthikeyan, R. (1997). Plant biodiversity inventory and conservation of two tropical dry evergreen forests of the Coromondal coast, south India. Biodiversity and Conservation, 6, 1063–1083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Paulos, D. (2001). Soil and water resources and degradation factors affecting productivity in Ethiopian highland agro-ecosystems. Northeast African Studies, 8(1), 27–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pereira, I. M., Andrade, L. A., Sampaio, E. V. S. B., & Barbosa, M. R. V. (2003). Use-history effects on structure and Flora of Caatinga. Biotropica, 35(2), 154–165.Google Scholar
  45. Pivello, V. R., Shida, C. N., & Meirelles, S. T. (1999). Alien grasses in Brazilian savannas: a threat to the biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8, 1281–1294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Price, J. N., & Morgan, J. W. (2007). Vegetation dynamics following resource manipulation in herb-rich woodland. Plant Ecology, 188, 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rasingam, L., & Parthasarathy, N. (2009). Diversity of understory plants in undisturbed and disturbed tropical lowland forests of Little Andaman Island, India. Biodiversity and Conservation, 18, 1045–1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Raunkiaer, C. (1934). Life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  49. Reis, A. M., Araújo, E. L., Ferraz, E. M. N., & Moura, A. N. (2006). Inter-annual variations in the floristic and population structure of an herbaceous community of “caatinga” vegetation in Pernambuco, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Botânica, 29(3), 497–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sá e Silva, I. M. M., Marangon, L. C., Hanazaki, N., & Albuquerque, U. P. (2008). Use and knowledge of fuelwood in three rural caatinga (dryland) communities in NE Brazil. Environment. Development and Sustainability, 11(4), 833–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sá, I. B., Riché, G. R., & Fotius, G. A. (2004). As paisagens e o processo de degradação do semi-árido nordestino. In J. M. C. Silva et al. (Eds.), Biodiversidade da caatinga: Áreas e ações prioritárias para a conservação (pp. 17–36). Brasília: Ministério do meio Ambiente: Universidade Federal de Pernambuco.Google Scholar
  52. Salo, L. F. (2004). Population dynamics of red brome (Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens): times for concern, opportunities for management. Journal of Arid Environments, 57, 291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sampaio, E. V. S. B., Araújo, E. L., Salcedo, I. H., & Tiessen, H. (1998). Regeneração da vegetação após corte e queima, em Serra Talhada, PE. Revista Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, 33, 621–632.Google Scholar
  54. Santos, J. M. F. F., Andrade, J. R., Lima, E. N., Silva, K. A., & Araújo, E. L. (2007). Dinâmica populacional de uma espécie herbácea em uma área de floresta tropical seca no Nordeste do Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biociências, 5, 855–857.Google Scholar
  55. Shepherd, G. J. (1995). FITOPAC 1. Editora UNICAMP, Campinas: Manual do usuário.Google Scholar
  56. Silva, K. A., Lima, E. N., Santos, J. M. F. F., Andrade, J. R., Santos, D. M., Sampaio, E. V. S. B., et al. (2008). Dinâmica de gramíneas em uma área de caatinga de Pernambuco-Brasil. In U. P. Albuquerque et al. (Eds.), Biodiversidade, potencial econômico e processos eco-fisiologicos em ecossistemas nordestinos (pp. 105–129). Recife: Comunigraf/Nupea.Google Scholar
  57. Silva, K. A., Araújo, E. L., & Ferraz, E. M. N. (2009). Estudo florístico do componente herbáceo e relação com solos em áreas de caatinga do embasamento cristalino e bacia sedimentar, Petrolândia-PE. Acta Botânica Brasília, 23(1), 100–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Teckle, K. (1999). Land degradation problems and their implications for food shortage in South Wello, Ethiopia. Environmental Management, 23, 419–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Volis, S., Mendlinger, S., & Ward, D. (2004). Demography and role of the seed bank in Mediterranean and desert populations of wild barley. Basic and Applied Ecology, 5, 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yayneshet, T., Eik, L. O., & Moe, S. R. (2009). The effects of exclosures in restoring degraded semi-arid vegetation in communal grazing lands in northern Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environments, 73, 542–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zar, J. H. (1996). Bioestatistical Analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. F. F. Santos
    • 1
  • D. M. Santos
    • 1
  • C. G. R. Lopes
    • 4
  • K. A. Silva
    • 2
  • E. V. S. B. Sampaio
    • 3
  • E. L. Araújo
    • 1
  1. 1.Programa de Pós Graduação em BotânicaUniversidade Federal Rural de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  2. 2.Centro Acadêmico de VitóriaUniversidade Federal de PernambucoVitória de Santo AntãoBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de Energia NuclearUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  4. 4.Universidade Federal do Piauí—Campus Amílcar Ferreira SobralFlorianoBrazil

Personalised recommendations